Muhammad Hussein Oroskhan, Sayyed Mohammad Anoosheh, Conflict of Culture and Religion: Jalal Al-e-Ahmad's “Pink Nail Polish” from a Bakhtin's Carnivalistic Point of View, ILSHS Volume 77, International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences (Volume 77)
    By the 1930s, the Iranian society was driven toward modernization. Consisted with the concept of modernization, feminism ushered a whole new era in Iranian history. Besides, the outbreak of World War II and the consequent abdication of Reza Khan afforded women a golden opportunity to fight for their rights and emancipations. This movement was also supported by the famous male writers of the time among whom Jalal Al-e-Ahmad marked a prominent place. He was keen enough to properly explore women's situation in his works and notice the drastic effect of modernization upon women's situation. Hence, in this study, we try to investigate Al-e-Ahmad's short story entitled “Pink Nail Polish” 1948 with respect to Bakhtin's Carnivalesque's theory. Furthermore, it is shown how Bakhtin's new literary mode can create the excellent chance of studying Iranian women's situation properly. Finally, we explain that due to the drastic change of Iranian women's situation towards modernity, they may lead a double life if their rights are not respected. This can lead to a disproportionate relationship between the husband and the wife as the marital infidelity becomes rampant.
    Carnival Time, Grotesque Realism, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, Shi'ism