Chidi U. Igwe, Chiedozie O. Ibegbulem, Linus A. Nwaogu, Cosmas O. Ujowundu, A. Chinedu Ene, Chemical Composition and Bioavailability of Zinc and Iron in Kunu-Zaki, a Nigerian Traditional Beverage, Volume 3, International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine (Volume 3)
https://www.scipress.com/IJPPE.3.9
Abstract:
    The effect of processing (germination and fermentation) on the chemical composition (proximate, mineral and phytochemical contents) of a Nigerian traditional beverage, kunu-zaki made from sorghum (<i>Sorghum bicolor</i>) grains with the addition of sweet potato (<i>Ipomonea</i> <i>batatas</i>) paste were studied. The bioavailability of Zn and Fe in the beverage were also assessed using phytate, Zn, Ca and Fe molar ratios. Processing of sorghum into kunu-zaki significantly (p&lt;0.05) increased its ash (26.32 %), Na (21.28 %), Ca (20.59 %), Fe (21.62 %), Zn (13.43 %), flavonoids (11.11 %) and alkaloids (30.00 %) contents, but decreased its protein (-43.75 %), fiber (-28.57 %), phenols (-43.80 %), saponin (-62.6 7%), tannin (-43.80 %), oxalate (-33.33 %) and phytate (-60.27 %) contents. Addition of sweet potato paste to kunu-zaki apparently aided in enhancing its chemical composition. The combination of germination and fermentation as processing techniques were better than germination alone in significantly (p&lt;0.05) improving the bioavailability of Fe and Zn, and reducing the anti-nutrient content of kunu-zaki, in comparison with both raw and germinated sorghum grains. In conclusion, the kunu-zaki had low contents of protein and fiber, adequate arrays of other functional nutrients and potentially high bioavailability of Fe and Zn.
Keywords:
    Fermentation, Germination, Mineral Bioavailability, Sorghum