Amyra Amat Sain, Azimah Amanah, Zuriati Zahari, Roshan Jahn Mohd Salim, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor, Mohd Ilham Adenan, (+)-Spectaline, a Piperidine Alkaloid from Senna spectabilis DC. Effective in Reducing the In Vitro Infection of Leishmania major, IJPPE Volume 3, International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine (Volume 3)
    <i>Senna spectabilis</i> is known to have antimicrobial, laxative, antiulcerogenic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties in folk medicine. Piperidine alkaloids extracted from various parts of this plant have been shown to have anticonvulsant (iso-6-spectaline), antinociceptive [(-)-spectaline] and lipid peroxidation [(+)-3-<i>O</i>-feruloylcassine, (-)-spectaline and (-)-3-<i>O</i>-acetylspectaline] activities. In our study, the ethyl acetate extract from <i>S. spectabilis</i> exhibited antileishmanial activity via intracellular promastigote assay or leishmanicidal assay and was further fractionated by using bioassay-guided isolation approach. The antiprotozoal principle was isolated from the ethyl acetate portion through solvent fractionation and a few series of chromatographic processes. The isolated active compound 1 was identified as (+)-spectaline on the basis of its spectral analysis (MS, 1D &amp; 2D NMR) with EC<sub>50</sub> value of 0.063 ± 0.005 µM for antileishmanial activity and selectivity index of 3.76.
    (+)-Spectaline, Bioassay-Guided Fractionation, <i>In Vitro</i> Intracellular Amastigote Assay Model, <i>Leishmania major</i>, Leishmaniasis, <i>Senna spectabilis</i>