I.H. Ifijen, A.U. Mamza, K.A. Fasina, J.I. Omoruyi, Esther U. Ikhuoria, Phytochemical Analysis of Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel Extract and its Anti-Plasmodial Properties on Wister Albino Mice via Oral Route, IJPPE Volume 13, International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine (Volume 13)
https://www.scipress.com/IJPPE.13.35
Abstract:
    <i>Guiera senegalensis</i> J.F. Gmel (Combretaceae) is acclaimed as a common herbal antipyretic and anti-malarial among some tribal groups in northern Nigeria. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents, antiplasmodial activity and the acute toxicity of <i>G. senegalensis</i> on mammalian cells. Aqueous ethanolic leaf extracts (AELE) of the plant were tested for the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, glycosides, phenolic acids, saponins and tannins using standard techniques. The AELE was then screened for acute toxicity on Wister albino mice (WAM) weighing between 30-35g and its antiplasmodial activity against <i>Plasmodium berghei </i>(the causative agent of malaria in some mammals). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, phenols, flavonoids, abundant tannins, alkaloid, saponins with the absence of cardiac glycosides in the AELE. Also, it was observed that <i>G. senegalensis </i>extracts had no toxic effect on the WAM across administered doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. From the prophylactic study, it was found that the AELE dosage of 200 mg/kg was most effective in the inhibition of <i>P. berghei </i>when compared with the control than other dosages tested (100 and 200 mg/kg). The extract also exhibited a better anti-plasmodial property (80% inhibition) in the curative study compared to the standard drug (Chloroquine diphosphate) (52%), inhibiting at the graded doses of AELE. It can, therefore, be concluded from this study that <i>G. senegalensis </i>extract possesses essential phytochemicals, resulting in antiplasmodial effect against <i>Plasmodium berghei</i>. &nbsp;
Keywords:
    Acute Toxicity, Anti-Malarial, Curative, <i>Guiera senegalensi</i>, Phytochemical, Prophylactic