Suchisuvra Chowdhury, Subhodeep Sarkar, Abantika Nandy, Soumendra Nath Talapatra, Assessment of Flower Visiting Insects Diversity as Pollinators in Two Parks, Kolkata, India, ILNS Volume 15, International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 15)
    Insects are depends upon autotrophs and they attract by the flowers colour and shape as pollinator. This is a mutual relationship between flowers and insects. The present study aims to determine flower visiting insect diversity as pollinators in two parks as biomonitoring of automobile air pollution exposure, landscape changes and/or human interactions. The study areas were selected as per heavily-populated neighborhoods, nearby office buildings, nearby roads and continuous vehicular movements, human interactions as visitors, where fences and high levels of human disturbance are common. The study was carried out at 2 sampling stations viz (i) Elliot park and (ii) Agri-Horticulture Society. The flower species were selected viz. Helianthus annuus, Petunia sp. and Buganvilia spectabilis planting above mentioned areas because these species are more common among other species. In each flower, diversity of visiting insects were studied by qualitative and quantitative assessment. Indices were Species richness, Index of Dominance, Relative abundance, Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index and Evenness Index for insects for all selected sites were calculated using the statistical formulae. The present results clearly indicate that the flower visiting insects are very less in numbers on three flowering species and index values were decreased. This study is a preliminary assessment of flower visiting insects diversity but further researches are needed in relation to pollination efficiencies of flower visiting insects and biochemical and genetic damage study of flowers as well as air pollution load by using instruments. It was concluded that three flowering species viz. sunflower, petunia and bougainvillea are very common both the parks but insect visitors are common but present less in number, which may be due to the vehicular pollution and/or human interference and/or landscape changes due to nearby neighborhood blocks, office and residential buildings etc.
    Biomonitoring, Diversity Index, Flower Visiting Insects, Insect Diversity, Pollination Effects