F.O. Ojiako, Usman Zakka, S.A. Dialoke, C.E. Ahuchaogu, O.M. Nnebue, C.P. Izuogu, Impregnating Storage Materials with Neem Seed Oil against Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Stored Bambara Seeds (Vigna subterranean L.) Verdcourt, ILNS Volume 52, International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 52)
    Neem (<i>Azadirachta</i> <i>indica </i>A. Juss.) seed oil (NSO) is acclaimed to have some form of insecticidal action against more than 400 insect species in at least 10 to 13 orders. The main delimitating factor in the wide acceptance of this well tested plant as a storage pest bioinsecticide is its foul sulfurous smell and bitter taste which impinges on the acceptability and marketability of treated produce. To ameliorate this shortfall, therefore, an assessment of the potential of impregnating different storage materials; [plastic containers (PLC), Bagco bags (BCB), Black polyethylene bags (BPB), white polyethylene bags (WPB) and calico bags (CAB)], with NSO in the management<i> </i>of<i> Callosobruchus maculatus </i>(F.) in stored Bambara seeds (<i>Vigna subterranea</i> L.), was conducted in the laboratory. The experiment was laid out in a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement fitted into a completely randomized design (CRD). Factor A represented four concentrations of NSO (0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 ml/ 100g seed), while factor B were the five different storage materials. The treatments were replicated four times Generally, seeds stored with impregnated storage materials recorded more bruchids mortality, reduced oviposition rate, decreased number of emerged insects (F<sub>1</sub> and F<sub>2</sub>) and had less damaged seeds (and hence decreased weevil perforation index, WPI) than the control. Concentration performance was dose related though the highest (1.50 %) did not differ statistically (P=0.05) from the medium (1.00 %) concentration. Seeds stored in BPBs had the highest mortalities, but recorded the lowest in number of eggs oviposited, egg/seed ratio, F<sub>1</sub>, F<sub>2</sub> and cumulative emergence, respectively. These results differed significantly (P=0.05) with the seeds stored in other materials. BPB stored seeds were also the least damaged with lowest exit holes/seed, seeds with holes and WPI, respectively. The performance of BPB was closely followed by seeds stored in WPBs in all the parameters tested. Conversely, seeds stored in BCBs recorded the lowest mortalities but the highest in all other parameters assessed. Other storage materials (PLC and CAB) had better storage quality than BCB materials. Impregnation of storage materials with NSO could be a better option to direct seed application with its attendant drawback. The use of NSO impregnated black polyethylene bags, within the scope of the storage materials screened, to control damage by <i>C. maculatus</i> in stored Bambara seeds, should be encouraged.
    Bambara Groundnut, Impregnating, Neem Seed Oil (NSO), Storage Materials