Tammanna R. Sahrawat, Parul Chawla, Identification of Potential Off-Targets of Chemotherapeutic Agent Sorafenib: A Molecular Docking Approach, ILNS Volume 51, International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 51)
    B-Raf is a multi- drug target serine/threonine protein kinase, involved in the transduction of mitogenic signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Mutated B-Raf causes overactive downstream signaling via MEK and ERK, leading to excessive cell proliferation and survival, independent of growth factors causing cancers such as Pancreatic carcinoma. A novel bi-aryl urea- Sorafenib, is a potent inhibitor of Raf-1 that has been approved for the treatment of a number of cancers including pancreatic cancer. The present investigation was designed to identify the potential off-targets of Sorafenib which could be responsible for its reported undesirable side effects. Molecular docking was used to test the efficacy of structural analogs of Sorafenib against B-Raf using FlexX and it was found that the analog with CID:10151557 had a high potency with minimum number of clashes, low lipophilic score and high match score, similar to Sorafenib. To identify the potential off-target/s of Sorafenib, macromolecular surface similarity detection software MEDIT SA MED-SuMo was used and the results obtained were validated through literature. The possible off-targets obtained belonged to the family of protein tyrosine kinases i.e. VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta, Flt-3, and c-KIT, each of which were docked with Sorafenib. Based on high docking scores and similarity with B-Raf for its binding site interacting residues, it was concluded that Vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase receptor (VEGFR) is a potential off-target of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent Sorafenib.
    Cancer, Chemotherapeutic Agent, Drug Off-Targets, Molecular Docking, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, Sorefenib