Akbar Hossain, Rajan Bhatt, Intervention of Climate Smart Technologies for Improving Water Productivity in an Enormous Water Use Rice-Wheat System of South-Asia, ILNS Volume 75, International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 75)
    I Intensively practices rice-wheat (R-W) cropping system (RWCS) in South-Asia is suffering from many sustainability issues such as micronutrient deficiencies, labour scarcity, production cost, declining land, declining groundwater level and water productivity along with declining soil health. &nbsp;Climate change further complex the things in one or other way. Therefore, the intervention of climate smart technologies are urgent for improving water productivity in an enormous water use RWCS of South-Asia. Although, farmers are confused regarding picking of suitable climate smart technology (CST) <i>viz.,</i> laser land leveling, un-puddled direct-seeded rice (UPDSR), soil matric potential based irrigation, double zero tillage in wheat followed by rice, raised bed planting, short duration cultivars and correct transplantation time, for enhancing their livelihoods through increasing land and water productivity on one side and mitigating global warming consequences on other. Performance of these technologies is both site and situation specific, and care must be taken in practicing them. Most of them cutting down the drainage losses, which further reduces recharging of soil profile which is not required in water stressed regions while these might be termed as energy-saving technologies; otherwise used to withdraw water from the deeper soil depths. These CST are also useful for waterlogged regions. However, CST viz. correct transplantation time and short duration cultivars partition higher fraction of ET water (evapotranspiration) from E (evaporation) to T (transpiration) component which further favour higher grain yields and thus, higher water productivity. Therefore, it is crucial for the introduction of CST for improving agricultural and water productivity in the era of climate change in an enormous water use RWCS of South-Asia.
    Rice-Wheat Systems, Smart Agriculture, South-Asia, Sustainable Crop Production, Water Productivity