Vladimiras Bondarenka, R. Sereika, XPS Study of Sol-Gel Synthesized Vanadium-Titanium-Hydroquinone Oxide Bronze Films, ILCPA Volume 54, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy (Volume 54)
    Vanadium-titanium-hydroquinone oxide bronze, V<sub>1.67</sub>Ti<sub>0.33</sub>O<sub>5±δ</sub> /HQ (HQ-hydroquinone), was synthesized by using the sol–gel method. Vanadium pentoxide powder, titanium dihydride, hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone were used as the starting materials to produce bronze. The composition of the synthesized compound was compared with V<sub>1.67</sub>Ti<sub>0.33</sub>O<sub>5±δ</sub>∙<i>n</i>H<sub>2</sub>O/HQ xerogel data. The xerogel and bronze were investigated by means of the XPS method. Analysis of the V–O region of XPS spectra showed that vanadium ions in xerogel ocurr in V<sup>5+</sup> and V<sup>4+</sup> states. In bronze, these ions are in a stable V<sup>5+ </sup>state. The oxygen in xerogel can be associated with O<sup>2-</sup> ions, hydroxide grouping and water. Oxygen only exists in bronze in the form of O<sup>2-</sup> ions and hydroxyl groups. Titanium ions in both cases are in a stable Ti<sup>4+</sup> state.
    Hydroquinone, Sol-Gel Technology, Valence States of Ions, Vanadium Oxides, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy