Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

SGG > SGG Volume 2 > Spatial Distribution and Patronage of Ecotourism...
< Back to Volume

Spatial Distribution and Patronage of Ecotourism Attractions in Enugu State, Nigeria

Full Text PDF


This study focused on examining the spatial characteristics and the patronage pattern of attractions and eco-tourism products in Enugu State. Primary and secondary sources of data collection were used to elicit information for the study. The primary sources involved the use of questionnaire survey, interview sessions guided by participatory rural appraisal technique, telephone survey, direct field observation and the use of Geographic Information System techniques. The secondary sources involved the use of documented information in textbooks, journals and registry of eco-tourism attraction across the study area. Findings from the study indicate that forty-one (41) operational ecotourism attractions exist across the study location with the result of the nearest neighbor analysis of 0.93 revealing that ecotourism attractions were randomly distributed across the study area. The study also observed that a total of 6,360 visitors visited and patronized the attractions between 2013 and 2017 with domestic eco-tourists having 56% of the entire visits to the attractions while visits by international eco-tourists recorded 44% of the entire visits. Based on the findings, the study recommended that major stakeholders in the tourism industry (government, non-governmental organizations and host communities) should collaborate and corporate to create an enabling environment for more investment opportunities and organize more ecotourism activities in the area. The study also recommended that managers of ecotourism attractions should employ modern marketing strategies to help create more awareness about the ecotourism attractions and its facilities to the entire world.


Sustainable Geoscience and Geotourism (Volume 2)
T. E. Amalu et al., "Spatial Distribution and Patronage of Ecotourism Attractions in Enugu State, Nigeria", Sustainable Geoscience and Geotourism, Vol. 2, pp. 1-15, 2018
Online since:
November 2018

[1] A.O. Ajake, T.E. Amalu, The relevance of tourism on the economic development of Cross River state, Nigeria, Journal of Geography and Regional Planning. 5(1) (2012) 11–25.


[2] A.O. Ajake, T.E. Amalu, Participation of Becheeve people in tourism development in Obudu Mountain resort, Cross River state, Nigeria, British Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 3(2) (2012) 25–39.


[3] B. O. Uwadiegwu, Basics of Recreation and Tourism Facilities, Planning, Enugu: Academic Publishing Co., (2002).

[4] C. Ryan, Researching Ecotourist Satisfaction: Issues, Concepts, Problems. Routledge: London, (2005).

[5] C. Ryan, G. Cessford, Developing a visitor satisfaction monitoring methodology: Quality gaps, crowding and some results, Current Issues in Tourism. 6(6) (2003) 457-507.


[6] E.I. Eja, A.O. Ajake, Seasonal changes on resort patronage in Cross River State, Nigeria, European Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Recreation. 2(2) (2011) 19-30.

[7] E.E. Iwara, T.E. Amalu, Assessing the seasonal patterns of visitors arrivals as an index for hotel industry growth in Calabar, Nigeria, Journal of Tourism and Management Research. 2(3) (2017) 135-146.


[8] T.E. Amalu et al., Socio-Economic impacts of ecotourism attractions in Enugu state, Nigeria, GeoJournal. (2017) 1-13.


[9] T.E. Amalu et al., Assessment of tourists' patronage of Obudu Mountain Resort, Cross River state, Nigeria, Journal of Hospitality and Management Tourism. 8(4) (2017) 32–41.


[10] T.E. Amalu, A.O. Ajake, Influence of Calabar carnival on the economy of residents of Calabar metropolis, Cross River state, Nigeria, Global Journal. 1(1) (2014) 67–81.

[11] I. A. Enang, A.O. Ajake, T.E. Amalu, Volumetric analysis of tourist arrivals in ecotourism sites of Cross River state, Nigeria, Journal of Tourism and Management Research. 1(1) (2016) 135–154.


[12] A.O. Ajake et al., Assessment of cultural and museum landscapes for tourism development: The Calabar museum scenario, Cross River State, Nigeria, Journal of Tourism and Management Research. 1(1) (2016) 119–134.


[13] T.E. Amalu et al., Assessment of the influence of Education on tourism development in Enugu state, Nigeria, American Journal of Tourism Research. 1(1) (2012) 33–42.

[14] T.E. Amalu, A.O. Ajake, P.O. Obi, Impact of royalties from forest resources on community development in Boki Local Government in Cross River state, Nigeria, GeoJournal. 80(1) (2015) 122–135.


[15] T.E. Amalu, P.A. Ojugbo, O.O Otop, Assessment of impact of Recreational resorts on socio-economic growth of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, Sustainable Geoscience and Geotourism. 1(1) (2018) 11-24.

[16] I.A. Ezeh, Selected tourists' attractions in Enugu State: Ezeagu tourist complex, Awhum waterfall and Opi lake system as case studies. Unpublished M.A Thesis, Department of Archaeology and Tourism, University of Nigeria Nsukka, (2006).

[17] X. Jin, Exhibition brand preference in mainland China: The role of relationship quality and destination attractiveness. Hong Kong institutional repositories, Thesis, XVI (308). (2011).

[18] M. Kozak, M. Rimmington, Tourist satisfaction with Mallorca, Spain, as an off-season holiday destination. Journal of Travel Research. 38 (3), (2000) 260-269.


[19] T.E. Amalu, A.O. Ajake, Developing natural lakes for socio-economic development: The case of Nike Lake, Enugu State Nigeria, GeoJournal. 78(4) (2018).


[20] T. Takon, T.E. Amalu, Assessment of natural resource conservation in Boki Local Government area, Cross River state, Nigeria, Environmental Science: An Indian Journal. 8(4) (2013) 123–131.

[21] K. Leena et al., Indicators of the criteria for good participation in Ecotourism planning at local level: A Nordic case study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 10(4) (2013) 451-466.


[22] N. Leiper, Tourism Management. 3rd ed. French Forest NSW: Pearson Education Australia, (2000).

[23] J. Marzuki, Taxing Cruise Tourism: Alaska's Head Tax on Cruise Ship Passengers, Tourism Economics. 14 (3) (2011) 599–614.


[24] T.E. Amalu et al., Socio-economic implication of tourists' appraisal of the Obudu Mountain resort, Cross River State, Nigeria, Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 1(3) (2012) 37-44.


[25] T.E. Amalu, A.O. Ajake, The impact of hotel industry development in Enugu City, Nigeria, Journal of Tourism and Heritage Studies. 4(1&2) (2015) 106-120.

[26] M. H. Mustafa, S. N. Abu Tayeh, The impact of Tourism development on the Archaeological site of Petra and local communities in surrounding villages, Asian Journal Social Science. 7 (8) (2011) 88-96.


[27] R.N. Okech, Pro-Poor vs. sustainable tourism in local communities: issues of empowerment and participation, in: K.R. Redy et al. (Eds.), Proceedings Natural Hazards & Disaster – Essays on Impacts and Management,, Bhattarams Publishers India, 2009, pp.170-187.

[28] E.E. Okonkwo, C.J. Odum, Community based tourism development in selected villages in Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Economic Literature. 38(3) (2012) 614-631.

[29] R. Oliver, Satisfaction. A behavioural perspective on the consumer, New York: McGraw-Hill, (2007).

[30] D.M. Roxana, Considerations about ecotourism and nature-based tourism realities and perspectives. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences. 1(5) (2012) 215-221.

[31] T. Takon, T.E. Amalu, D. Okpara, Assessment of local people's attitude towards natural resource conservation in Boki Local government area, Cross River state, Nigeria, Research Journal in Organizational Psychology and Education Studies. 2(2) (2013).

[32] T.E. Amalu, Community people's participation in tourism development in Obudu Mountain resort Cross river State, Nigeria, Lambert Publishers, Germany, (2012).

[33] K. Kulkajonplun, V. Angkasith, D. Rithmance, The development of a sustainable resort and indicators, presented at the 13th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing-decoupling growth from resource use, Procedia CIRP-40, 2016, pp.191-196.


[34] M. Stock et al., Resort Development and Touristic Capital of Place: The Circulation of Wealth, (2014).

[35] E.J. Aniah, E.I. Eja, J.E. Otu, Resort potentials as a strategy for sustainable tourism development in Plateau State, Nigeria, Journal of Sustainable Development. 2(2) (2009) 73-79.


[36] T.E. Amalu, A.O. Ajake, An assessment of the employment structure in the tourism industry of Obudu Mountain resort, Cross River state, Nigeria, Geo-Journal of Tourism and Geosites. 9(1) (2012) 35–56.

Show More Hide
Cited By:

[1] T. Amalu, P. Phil-Eze, A. Ajake, "Assessing the impact of economic and cultural diversity on tourism development in Nigeria", GeoJournal, 2019


[2] T. Amalu, P. Ojugbo, O. Oqua, "Assessment of Impact of Recreational Resorts on Socio-Economic Growth of Calabar, Cross River State - Nigeria", Sustainable Geoscience and Geotourism, Vol. 1, p. 11, 2018


[3] T. Amalu, U. Oko, I. Igwe, U. Ehugbo, B. Okeh, E. Duluora, "Tourism industry effects on socio-cultural activities of host communities: evidence from Cross River State, Nigeria", GeoJournal, 2020


[4] P. Angelika, T. Handayani, M. Susilowati, "Spatial pattern of supporting facilities in mangrove ecotourism Karawang regency, West Java", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 1725, p. 012074, 2021

Show More Hide