Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

SFP > SFP Volume 9 > Effect of Starter Culture on the Fatty Acid and...
< Back to Volume

Effect of Starter Culture on the Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Profile of Fermented Parkia biglobosa Seeds

Full Text PDF


Iru, a condiment used for seasoning soup is often obtained from the fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds. The present study therefore investigates the effect of different starter culture on the amino and fatty acid profile of Parkia biglobosa seed fermented to produce iru. Starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis and Leuconostoc sp were used to ferment Parkia biglobosa seeds. The bacterial load increased from 0.00 log10cfu/g in boiled raw sample to 8.67 log10cfu/g in naturally fermented sample. Fermentation significantly (P<0.05) increased the quantity of the amino acids in fermented samples. Aspartic acid (25.85 g/100g) and linoleic acid (42.99 %) were the highest amino and fatty acids respectively in the fermented samples. The result from this study reveals that fermentation significantly increase the amino and fatty acid profile of Parkia biglobosa fermented to produce iru, a Nigerian condiment.


Sustainable Food Production (Volume 9)
A. V. Atere et al., "Effect of Starter Culture on the Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Profile of Fermented Parkia biglobosa Seeds", Sustainable Food Production, Vol. 9, pp. 15-22, 2020
Online since:
November 2020

[1] Atere, A.V., Oyetayo, V.O. and Akinyosoye, F.A. Effects of starter culture on the Proximate, Antioxidant, Antinutritional and Mineral composition of fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds to produce Iru. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 4(4) (2019) 61-65.


[2] Adamu, S.A., Farouq, A.A., Magashi, M.A. and Sokoto, A.M. Studies on fermentation of African Locust beans (Parkia biglobosa L) Journal of Advancement in medical and life science 7(2) (2019)1-3.

[3] Aremu, M.O., Ibrahim, H., Awala, Y.E., Olonisakin, A. and Oko, O.J. Effect of fermentation on fatty acid composition of African locust beans and Mesquite bean. J. Chem. Eng. Res 2(10) (2015) 817-823.

[4] Atere, A.V. and Aderibigbe, E.Y. Studies on the causative factors of odour development during fermentation of Parkia biglobosa. 2nd International Conference and Exhibition (OWSD-FUTA) (2015) 98-103.

[5] Balogun, A.M. and Fetuga, B.L. Chemical composition of some under exploited crops seeds in Nigeria. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34 (1986) 189-192.


[6] Aderibigbe, E.Y., Visessanguan, W., Sumpavapol, P. and Kongtong, K. Sourcing starter cultures for Parkia biglobosa fermentation I: Phylogenic grouping of Bacillus species from commercial iru, samples. International Journal for Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research 2(7) (2011) 121-127.


[7] Odunfa, S. A. Biochemical changes in fermenting African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) during iru, fermentation. Journal of Food Technology 20 (1985) 295-303.


[8] Odunfa, S.A. and Adewuyi, E.Y. Optimization of process conditions for the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa). I. Effect of time, temperature and humidity. Journal of Chemical Technology and Food Microbial 9 (1985) 6 – 10.

[9] Elemo, G.N., Elemo, B.O., Oladunmoye, O.O. and Erukainure, O.L. Comprehensive investigation into the nutritional composition of dehulled and defatted African locust bean seed (Parkia biglobosa). African Journal of Plant Science 5(5) (2011) 291-295.

[10] Brenna, J.T. Efficiency of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to long chain n-3 fatty acids in man. Curr. Opin. Clin. Nutr 5(2) (2002) 127-132.

[11] Fernandez, M.L. and West, K.L. Mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids modulate plasma lipids. Jor. Nutr. 135 (9) (2005) 2075-2078.


[12] AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis International. 18th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. USA (2006).

[13] Amao, J.A., Odunfa, F.A. and Mbom, C.N. The role of Staphylococcus species in the production of iru during the fermentation of African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa). Food Research 2(2) (2018): 187-193.


[14] Ijarotimi, O.S. and Keshinro, O.O. Comparison between the amino acid, fatty acid, minerals and Nutritional quality of Raw, Germinated and Fermented African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) flour. Acta. Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment 11(2) (2012) 151-165.

[15] Hassan, L.G. and Umar, K.J. Protein and amino acid composition of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa). Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystem 5:(2005) 45-50.

[16] Lynch, D.V. and Thompson, G.A. Re-tailored lipids molecular species: A tactical mechanism for modulating membrane properties. Trends Biochemistry Science 9 (1984) 442-445.

[17] Zuniga, M.E., Lokesh, R. and Kinsella, J.E. Effect of dietary N-6 and N-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on composition and enzyme activities in liver plasma membrane of mice. Nutritional Research 8 (9) (1990) 1051-1059.


[18] Salunkhe, D.K., Kadam S.S. and Chavan, J.K. Post-Harvest Biotechnology of Food Legumes, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1985)132-140.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.