Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

SFP > SFP Volume 8 > Amino Acid Composition of Kilishi - Nigerian (Beef...
< Back to Volume

Amino Acid Composition of Kilishi - Nigerian (Beef Jerky) Meat

Full Text PDF


The article reports the amino acid composition of Nigerian beef jerky meat called Kilishi. Kilishi is consumed dry, hence determination was on dry weight basis. Sample was purchased in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Amino acid values were highest for non-essential amino acid in Glu (14.3 g100g-1) whereas from essential amino acid it was Lys (8.69 g100g-1). Other high value amino acids were (in g100g-1): Asp (8.85), Leu (7.68), Arg (6.02), Ile (4.08), Trp (1.02), Cys (1.18) and His (2.40). P-PER1,2,3 values were superior at values of 2.52 – 2.70. EAAI1 (soybean standard) was 1.23 and EAAI2 (egg standard) was 94.5 with corresponding BV of 91.3. Lys/Trp was very high at 8.55 and Met/Trp was 2.38. Values of TNEAA was 52.1 g100g-1 (57.7%) and TEAA was 38.2 g100g-1(42.3%). In the egg score comparison Ser (0.461) was the limiting amino acid (LAA) with protein corrected digestibility value of 0.338; in provisional EAA scoring pattern, LAA was Val (0.882) and corrected version was 0.742; in pre-school children requirement, LAA was Trp (0.927) and corrected value of 0.780. Variation percentage values between the scores/corrected scores were virtually 12.2% per parameter compared. Correlation values between each score standard/corrected score values were significantly different at r=0.01 with values of 0.9997 – 0.99999. Estimates of amino acid requirements at ages 10 – 12 years (mg kg-1 day-1) showed kilishi to be better than the standards at 74.9% - 453%. Results showed that kiishi is protein-condensed.


Sustainable Food Production (Volume 8)
E. I. Adeyeye et al., "Amino Acid Composition of Kilishi - Nigerian (Beef Jerky) Meat", Sustainable Food Production, Vol. 8, pp. 1-16, 2020
Online since:
October 2020

[1] E. C. Igwe, A. Nura, N. Abusalam, M. Dandago, J. E. Obiegbuna. Evaluation of production techniques and quality assessment of kilishi in some parts of Kano, Kano state, Nigeria, Int. J. Basic Sci. Tech. 1 (2015)35-38.

[2] Using Kilishi - Nigerian meat jerky as a healthy snack for weight loss. Nigerian meat  jerky as a healthy snack for weight loss. Available: https://>.

[3] Special Report, Nigeria's meat of possibilities (video documentary) – Nigeria Today. 30 April, (2016).

[4] Nigeria, Kano – Kilishi is Everything to the People. Retrieved 7 July (2016).

[5] L. Umuoke, How to prepare Kilishi, InfoGuideNIGERIA.COM (Information Guide in Nigeria), August 27, (2018).

[6] AOAC, Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, Method 982 – 30, (2006).

[7] P. O. Danka, D. T. Dobrina, V. I. Kalin, Simultaneous identification and determination of total content of amino acids in food supplements – tablets by gas chromatography, Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 5(2) (2012) 57-68.

[8] O. Olaofe, E. T. Akintayo, Prediction of isoelectric point of legume and oil seed proteins from their amino acid composition, The J. Technosci. 4 (2000) 49-53.

[9] R. H. Alsmeyer, A. E. Cunningham, M. L. Happich, Equations to predict PER from amino acid analysis, Food Technol. 28 (1974) 24-38.

[10] B. L. Oser, An Integrated Essential Amino Acid Index for Predicting the Biological Value of Proteins, in: A. A. Albanese (Ed.), Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition. Academic Press, New York, 1959, pp.281-295.


[11] A. A. Paul, D. A. T. Southgate, J. Russsel, First Supplement to McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods: Amino acids, mg per 100g Food, fatty acids, g per 100g Food. HM Stationary Off, London, (1978).

[12] FAO/WHO. Energy and protein requirements, Technical Report Series No 522, WHO, Geneva, (1973).

[13] FAO/WHO/UNU, Energy and protein requirements, Technical Report Series No 724, WHO, Geneva, (1985).

[14] F. H. Steinke, E. E. Prescher, D. T. Hopkins, Nutritional evaluation (PER) of isolated soybean protein and combinations of food proteins, Journal of Food Science 45 (1980) 323-327.


[15] D. C. Nieman, D. E. Butterworth, C. N. Nieman, Nutrition. WC Brown Publishers, Dubuque, (1992).

[16] W. R. Akeson, M. Stahmann, A pepsin pancreatic index of protein quality evaluation, Journal of Nutrition 83 (1964) 257 – 261.

[17] E. G. Abimorad, G. H. Squassoni, D. J. Carneiro, Apparent digestibility of protein, energy and amino acids in some selected food ingridients for pacu Piaracious mesopotamicus, Aquacult. Nutr. 14 (2008) 374 – 380.


[18] FAO/WHO, Protein quality evaluation, Report of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Food and Nutrition Paper 51, FAO, Rome, (1991).


[19] R. A. Oloyo, Fundamentals of research methodology and applied sciences, ROA Educational Press, Ilaro, Nigeria, (2001).

[20] PubChem and the American Chemical Society, Reshaping Scholarly Communication, University of Califonia, USA, 2005-05-31. Retrieved 2018-10-15.

[21] E. I. Adeyeye, Amino acid profiles of the flesh of the heterosexual pairs of Neopetrolisthes maculatus, International Letters of Natural Sciences 61 (2017) 23-35.


[22] E. I. Adeyeye, Amino acid composition of whole body, flesh and exoskeleton of female common West African fresh water crab Sudanautes africanus africanus, Pak J. Nutr. 7 (2008) 748 - 752.


[23] A. Sinclair, N. Mann, S. O'Connell, The Nutrient Composition of Australian Beef and Lamb, RMIT, Melbourne, (1999).

[24] B. S. Schweigert, B. J. Payne, A Summary of the Nutrient Content of Meat, Bulletin No. 30, American. Chicago: Meat Inst. Foundation, (1956).

[25] D. C. Mahan, R. G. Shields Jr., Essential and nonessential amino acid composition of pigs from birth to 145 kilograms of body weight, and comparison to other studies, J. of Animal Science 76(2) (1998) 513 – 521.


[26] E. F. Beach, B. Munks, A. Robinson, The amino acid composition of animal tissue protein, J. Biol. Chem. 148 (1943) 431 – 439.

[27] E. I. Adeyeye, Simultaneous identification and evaluation of amino acid profiles of the male and female innards of Neopetrolisthes maculatus, International Letters of Natural Sciences 75 (2019) 13 – 26.


[28] FAO/WHO, Protein quality evaluation, Report of Joint FAO/WHO Consultation, Bethesda, MD, 4-8 December, 1989, FAO/WHO, Rome, (1990).


[29] E. I. Adeyeye, The composition of the winged termites, Macrotermes bellicosus, Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 30(2) (2005) 145-149.

[30] E. I. Adeyeye, Amino acid composition of variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus, Tropical Science 45(4) (2005) 141-143.


[31] E. I. Adeyeye, E. O. Afolabi, Amino acid composition of three different types of land snails consumed in Nigeria, Food Chemistry 85(4) (2004) 535 – 539.


[32] E. I. Adeyeye, The chemical composition of liquid and solid endosperm of ripe coconut. Oriental Journal of Chemistry 20(3) (2004) 471-476.

[33] E. I. Adeyeye, S. S. Asaolu, A. O. Aluko, Amino acids composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and snack nut (Anacardium occidentale), Int. J. Food Science and Nutr. 58(4) (2007) 241 – 249.


[34] S. Bingham, Dictionary of Nutrition, Barrie and Jenkins, London, (1977).

[35] H. G. Muller, G. Tobin, Nutrition and Food Processing, Avi Publishing, Westport, CT, (1980).

[36] M. Friedman, Nutritional value of proteins from different food sources – A review, Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 44 (1996) 6 – 29.

[37] E. I. Adeyeye, M. A. Oyarekua, A. J. Adesina, Proximate, mineral, amino acid composition and mineral safety index of Callinectes latimanus, International Journal of Development Research 4 (2014) 2641-2649.

[38] FAO, Sorghum and millets in human nutrition, FAO Food Nutrition Series No 27, FAO/UN, Rome, (1995).

[39] B. Belavady, S. G. Srikantia, C. Gopalan, The effect of oral administration of leuane on the metabolism of tryptophan, Biochem. J. 87(1963) 652 – 655.


[40] B. Belavady, P. U. Rao, Leucine and Isoleucine Content of Jowar and its Pellagragenicity, Indian Exp. Biol. 17(7) (1979) 659-661.

[41] Y. G. Deosthale, Nutrition dimension of high yielding and hybrid crop varieties: Locational and varietal differences in nutritional value, in: FAO, FAO Food and Nutrition Series No 27, Sorghum and Millets in Human Nutrition, FAO, p.82.

[42] J. C. Cavins, D. F. Kwolek, G. E. Inglett, J. C. Cowen, Amino acid analysis of soybean meal: interlaboratory study, Journal of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 55 (1972) 686 – 694.


[43] E. I. Adeyeye, M. O. Aremu, Amino acid composition of two fancy meats (Liver and Heart) of African giant pouch rat (Cricetomys gambianus), Oriental Journal of Chemistry 27(4) (2011) 1409-1419.

[44] A. A. Albanese, Protein and Amino Acid Requirements of Mammals, Academic Press, New York, (1950).

[45] H. H. Mitchell, A method for determining the biological value of protein, in: A.A. Albanese (Ed.), Protein and Amino Acid Requirements of Mammals, Academic Press, New York, 1950, p.1 – 32.

[46] P. B. Pencharz, J. W-C Hsu, R. O. Ball, Aromatic amino acid requirements in healthy human subjects, The Journal of Nutrition (2007) 1 – 3.

[47] G. Schaafma, The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score, J. Nutr. 130 (2000) 1865S – 1867S.


[48] B. Walther, A. Schmid, R. Sieber, K. Wehmuller, Cheese in nutrition and health, Diary Science and Technology 88(4 – 5) (2008) 389 – 405.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.