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Effect of Different Fermentation Time on the Microbial, Mineral and Proximate Composition of Parkia biglobosa Seeds Fermented for Iru Production

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Fermented food condiments form an integral part of African diets as they supply nutrients with claimed medicinal properties. This research was designed to investigate the effect of period of fermentation on the microbial, mineral and proximate composition of fermented Parkia biglobosa seeds. The bacteriological, nutritional and sensory parameters were carried out on the raw, dehulled and fermented seeds. The result of the total bacterial counts showed that the raw seed had 3.67 log10cfu, there was a significant increase in the total bacteria count from 2.20 log10cfu/g in dehulled unfermented bean to 9.248 log10cfu/g at 96 hr of fermentation. The bacteria isolated were Bacillus subtilis (32 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (9 isolates), and Leuconostoc spp (3 isolates). The pH increased significantly from 4.57 in the raw seeds to 8.40 at 96 hr of fermentation. The titratable acidity decreased from 0.179N in the raw seeds until it got to 0.0313N at 96hr of fermentation. The proximate composition on dry mass basis showed that ‘iru’ fermented for 48hr had the highest protein content of 41.023%. The carbohydrate decreased from 42.153% in the raw seed to 20.733% at the end of fermentation. Four of the minerals; lead, cadmium, cobalt and nickel were detected in the raw seeds but were no longer available after dehulling. Phosphorus, sodium, calcium and potassium increased during the fermentation period. The sensory result showed that the intensity of growth on the surface of the fermenting bean increased. Moreover, the sensory score on the texture showed that the seed became softer as the fermentation progressed. The colour became darker and the ammonia odour became more pungent. The overall-liking showed a significant increase as the fermentation progressed where the panelist preferred the product fermented for 72hr. The result from this study revealed that the best time for fermentation of Parkia biglobosa seeds to produce good quality iru was between 48hr and 72hr.


Sustainable Food Production (Volume 7)
A. V. Atere et al., "Effect of Different Fermentation Time on the Microbial, Mineral and Proximate Composition of Parkia biglobosa Seeds Fermented for Iru Production", Sustainable Food Production, Vol. 7, pp. 17-23, 2020
Online since:
February 2020

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Cited By:

[1] A. Atere, V. Oyetayo, F. Akinyosoye, "Effect of Starter Culture on the Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Profile of Fermented Parkia biglobosa Seeds", Sustainable Food Production, Vol. 9, p. 15, 2020


[2] P. Olubunmi, B. Funmilola , O. Funke Bose, O. Uchenna Ch, A. Yinka Segu, " Effect of Fermentation Time and Container on the Microbial and Sensory Properties of Parkia biglobosa Seed Condiment (Iru)", Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 22, p. 139, 2022