Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

SFP > SFP Volume 7 > Resource Use Efficiency of Yam Production among...
< Back to Volume

Resource Use Efficiency of Yam Production among Smallholder Farmers and Effect to the Environment in the Tropics

Full Text PDF


Resource use efficiency of yam production among smallholder farmers in Southeast, Nigeria was studied. The specific objectives of the study are to estimate the costs and returns in yam production, determine the allocative efficiency of yam production among small holder farmers, determine the different effects of yam cropping activities to the environment and identify and describe the limiting factor to yam production in the study area. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 240 farmers and from which information needed for the study were elicited using a structure questionnaire. Cost and returns analysis, allocative efficiency model and distributive statistics such as percentage response and frequency distribution table were used to capture the objectives of the study. The result shows that yam production was profitable in the study area. Also, result of the allocative efficiency of the inputs shows that the farmers did not attain optimal allocative efficiency, since they either under - utilized or over utilized their resources. Yam production activities in form of clearing, burning, pesticides use, fertilizer use and tillage could result in among others wild Life habitation, oxygen – carbon dioxide balance, erosion, effect aesthetic, increases soil temperature, reduction of soil nutrient, human health and welfare and conversion of organic nitrogen into mobile nitrates. The constraints to yam production were high cost of labour, poor access to credit, poor access to extension services and high cost of labour. Improving farmers’ access to credit, fertilizer and extension contact were recommended.


Sustainable Food Production (Volume 7)
S. I. Ume et al., "Resource Use Efficiency of Yam Production among Smallholder Farmers and Effect to the Environment in the Tropics", Sustainable Food Production, Vol. 7, pp. 1-16, 2020
Online since:
February 2020

[1] International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA). Strategic plan for yam: 1989-2010. Ibadan, Nigeria.2011; Pp 133.

[2] National Root Crop Research Institute (NRCRI.).Annual report of National Root Crop Research Institute, Umudike, Umuahia.2013;38p.


[3] D.B, Zaknayiba. and L. Tanko, L. Costs and returns analysis of yam production among small scale farmers in Karu local government area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. PAT; 2013;9(1): 73–80.

[4] FAO: FAOSTAT: Food and agriculture. Database result.(2008).

[5] FAO . Food and agriculture organization production year book. Rome, Italy.(2012).

[6] FAO. FAOSTAT Statistics division of the food and agriculture organization. Accessed July 03. Data base results.(2013).

[7] J P. Migap and J S. Audu. Empirical study on yam cultivation and economic development of Taraba State: Case study of Wukari local government area. Journal of Business and Organizational Development. 2012; 4: 32–52.

[8] FAO FAOSTAT, statistics division of the food and agriculture organization. Accessed July 03, 2008, Data base results. (2013).

[9] F I. Nweke, B O. Ugwu and CIA. Asadu : Production costs in the yam based cropping systems of south Eastern, Nigeria. Research monograph, No 6, IITA, Ibadan Nigeria;2009; Pp 29.

[10] J C Nwaru. Rural credit market and resource use in arable crop production efficiency in Imo State of Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Abia State.2004; 24p.


[11] E S. Okeoghene, J. Egbodion and O.O. Ose,. Profitability Analysis of Yam Production in Ika South local government area of Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2O13; 3(2): 118–130.

[12] D O. Ohajianya;. Comparative analysis of organic and inorganic fertilizer use in cassava production in Imo State, International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2007; 9: 30-34

[13] S.I. Ume and A.I.N. Kaine. Determinants of cocoyam farmers' choice of adaptation methods to climate change in South–East, Nigeria, Journal of Agriculture and Food Environment. 2017;4(2) 23-35.

[14] FAO. Food and agriculture organization production year book. Rome, Italy.(2006).

[15] C.S Nwosu and V B N. Okoli. Economic analysis of resource use by ware yam farmers in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria held at Tadoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, Oyo State Nigeria. 2010;Pp.29-34.


[16] CYG.Amankwah. The structure and efficiency in resource use in maize production in the Asamankese District of Ghana. Doctoral dissertation,University of Ghana. 1996; Pp. 41-45.

[17] M U Awoke, M.U Resource use efficiency in multiple cropping system by small-holder farmers in Ebonyi state of Nigeria". A Ph.D. thesis of Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension of Enugu state University of Science and Technology. 2001; Pp. 34 – 42.


[18] N A.Etim, D Thompson and C E Onyenweaku. Measuring efficiency of yam (Dioscorea spp.) production among resource poor farmers in rural Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences,.2013; 1(3): 42–47.

[19] M A.Maikasuwa and A L.Ala. Determination of profitability and resource-use efficiency of yam production by women in Bosso local government area of Niger State, Nigeria. European Scientific Journal.2013; 9(16): 196–205.

[20] S C Kumbyakiar.A generalized production frontier approach for estimating determinants of inefficiency in U. S dairy farms. Journal of Business Economics and Statistics. 2006; 9:279-281.

[21] G. Danso-Abbeam, AM. Dahamani and G. Bawa. Resource-use-efficiency among smallholder groundnut farmers in Northern Region, Ghana. Am. Exp. Agric. 2012; 6(5):290.


[22] M LJhingan, M.L. Micro Economic Theory (6th Edition). India, Vrinda Publications Ltd.; 2007; 56P.

[23] M. Fargnoli, M. Lombardi, D; Puri, L. Casori, E Masciarelli, S.Mandic-Rajcevic and C. Colosio. The Safe Use of Pesticides: A Risk Assessment Procedure for the Enhancement of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Management. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health.2009; 16, 310.


[24] FAO. Food crop and storage, corporate document repository and databases. (2008).

[25] S. I.Ume, C I, Ezeano L U, Agu, and J.Emma-Ajah J Resource. Use Efficiency among Cocoyam Farmers in Anambra State of Nigeria. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences. 2016 1(3): 1-11.


[26] National Population Commission (NPC). Population census of Federal Republic of Nigeria: Analytical report at the national level. National Population Commission, Abuja.(2006).

[27] C S.Nwosu,  and VBN Okoli. Economic analysis of resource use by ware yam farmers in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria held at ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, Oyo State Nigeria, 2010;pp.29-34.


[28] S. I.Ume, C.I. Arene and B.Okpukpara Adoption of improved crop production technology in Anambra State, Nigeria: T & V system approach. Farm ManagemenT.Association of Nigeria, 20th Annual National Conference held at Jos.2010; Pp; 322 – 330.

[29] C. E.Onyenweaku, B.C Okoye and K.C Okorie. Determinants of fertilizer adoption by rice farmers in Bende Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Nigeria. Agricultural Journa.2010; 41(2): 1-6.

[30] J.A Mbanasor, and I. O.Obiora, I. O. Resource productivity under Fadamas cropping system in Umuahia North Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical , 2013;6; 23 -29.

[31] G. I. Wilcox,C O A Ugwumba, A.I, Achike C.Agbagwa and F.B Uche F.B. Allocative efficiency of smallholder cocoyam farmers in South-South, Nigeria International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB)2016;4(1)4; 24 – 28.


[32] S.A. Omoruyi, U X Orhue, A A Akerobo and C.I Aghimien. Prescribed agric science for senior secondary schools. Revised edition. Idodo Umeh Publishers Ltd. 1999; 14p.

[33] H.McGuinness. Living Soils: Sustainable Alternatives to Chemical Fertilizers, Consumer PolicyInstitute, Consumers Union, (2003).

[34] P.K. Gupta, S. Sahai, N.Singh and CK Dixit. Residue burning in rice wheat cropping system. Causes and the Implications. Curri. Sci.India. 2004; 87 ;1713 – 1715.

[35] P. Agamuthu. Challenges and Opportunities in agro- wastes management; An Asian perspective, proceedings of the meeting of first regional 3Rforum in Asian, Tokyo, Japan.2009; 11 – 12November.

[36] S.Sahai, C. Sharma, S.K. Singh and P.K Gupta, P.K; An Assessment of Trace gases, Carbon and Nitrogen emissions from field burning of agricultural residues in India. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosystem.2001;89; 143 – 157.


[37] S.K. Lohan, H S Jat, A.K Yadav, H.S. Sidhu. Burning issues of paddy residues management in North West States of India. Renew Sustain. Energy Rev 2018; 81; 693 – 706.


[38] N.Jain, A. Bhati, and H. Pathak, Crop residual burning in IndiaAresonal air Qual. Research 2014; 14;422 – 430.

[39] R.Nagendran, . Agricultural wastes and pollution. Wastes.2016; 341 – 355.

[40] F.O. Obi; B.O. Ugwuishiwu, J.N, Nwakaire. Agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management. Nijotech. 2016; 35; 957 – 954.


[41] B. Gadde, S Bonnet, CMenke, C and Garivait, S(2000) Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India.Thailand and Phillipines. Environmental pollution; 157; 1554 – 1558.


[42] A. Abukari. The Pesticides Law and the Attitudes of PesticidesDealers in the Northern Region of Ghana: Implications for Environmental Security and Human Health. J. Environ. Earth Sci.2015; 5, 106–114.

[43] J.Altman, and A.D. Rovira. Herbicide-pathogen interactions in soil-borne root diseases. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 2017; 11, 166–172.


[44] S.Asfaw, D. Mithofer, and H.Waibel (2009)EU Food Safety Standards, Pesticides Use and Farm-level Productivity: The case of High-value Crops in Kenya. J. Agric. Econ.2016; 60: 645–667.


[45] A.Wumbei, D; Senaeve, M.; Houbraken and P Spanoghe. Pesticides residue analysis in yam from selected markets across Ghana and Belgium: An evaluation of the QUECHERS method. Int. J. Food Contam. 2018; 5, 4.


[46] C A.Bradley, G L Hartman, L M; Wax, W L; Pedersen. Influence of herbicides on Rhizoctonia root and hypocotyl rot of soybean. Crop Prot.2002; 21, 679–687.


[47] W J Ntow, H J Gijzen, P Kelderman and P Drechsel. Farmer perceptions and pesticide use practices in vegetable production in Ghana. Pest Manag. Sci. 2006; 62, 356–365.


[48] E. De Gavelle, B. de Lauzon-Guillain, M A. Charles,C. Chevrier, M.; Hulin, V; Sirot, M; Merlo, and A. Nougadère. Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues and associated risk in the French ELFE cohort of pregnant women. Environ. Int.2006; 92–93, 533–542.


[49] L. Kryzanowski, and D C.Penney. Alberta fertilizer guide. Alberta 310-FARM(3276).(2004).

[50] S. I. Ume, S.I, E. E. Ebe, C.D. Ochiaka,J S. Ochiaka. Technical Efficiency of Yam Based Intercropping System among Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria (Using Trans - Log Frontier Production Function) International Journal of Research & Review (; 2017;1 (4); 14 – 19.

[51] K. M. Illyassou, R. Adamou and B. Schiffers. First diet survey in Niger River valley and acute risk assessment for consumers exposed to pesticide residues in vegetables. Tunis. J. Plant Protect.2018; 13, 243–262.

[52] L H.Hileman, Effect of rate of poultry manure application on selected soil chemical properties. Proc. of International Symposium on Livestock Wastes. Am. Soc. of Agric. Engineers. St. Jos. Michigan.2009; p.247–248.

[53] K.Mahdi Al. (2015)Frequent tillage and its impact on soil quality. Encyclopedia Article ISU Extension andnOutreach Iowa State UniversityState and National Extension Partners, (2015).

[54] V E. Enya and J O. Alimba, J.O. Analysis of factors affecting demand from agricultural credit of commercial banks in Nigeria (1986-2005). Journal of Agriculture, forestry and social sciences 2007;5(1): 52-57.


[55] L SO Liverpool-Tasie, B T Omonona, A, Sanou, and W. Ogunleye. A profitability analysis of fertilizer use for maize production in Nigeria. GISAIA: Policy Paper – 2016; February (2016).

[56] R OIheke Market access, income diversification and welfare status of rural farm households in Abia State. Nigeria. Nigeria Agricultural Journal. 2010; 4(2): 13-18.

[57] CI. Ezeano, S.I, Ume, CC, Okeke, B O, Gbughemobi,;Socio Economic Determinant Factors to Youths Participation in Broilers Production in Imo State of Nigeria.International Journal of Research & Review ( 2017; 1(4);12 - 19 January.

[58] K. Ogungbile and J. Olukosi, J. An overview of the problems of resource poor farmers in Nigeria agriculture. A paper presented on appropriate technology for resource poor farmers. The processing of NFSRN held in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.1999; pp.14-17.

[59] RPA, Unammah, R.P.A. Agricultural technology generation and transfer strategies for food securities. Proceedings of the 16th Annual zonal Research and Extension, farmers input linkage system (REFILS) Workshop South East/South South zones of Nigeria.2003; 19th – 23 November.


[60] E C. Okorji. Appropriate technology generation for small scale farmers in Nigeria. Proceeding of the National Farming System Research Network workshop held at Calabar, Cross Rivers State, Nigeria. 2003; 2. 349.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.