Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

SFP > SFP Volume 2 > Influence of Sprouting on Proximate and Sensory...
< Back to Volume

Influence of Sprouting on Proximate and Sensory Properties of Gworo (Cola nitida) and Ojigbo (Cola acuminata) Kola Nuts

Full Text PDF


Influence of sprouting on proximate and sensory properties of gworo ( oji-housa) (Cola nitida) and ojigbo (Cola acuminate) kola nuts were explored. The two varieties of kola nuts were sprouted at ambient temperature (25 to 32°C) for 4 weeks separately in a regularly moistened serviette wrapped with black polyethylene. Both proximate and sensory properties were conducted before and after sprouting on the mash prepared separately from them. Proximate composition showed that moisture content, ash and protein increased, while fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate decreased with sprouting in both varieties of kola nuts. Sprouted ojigbo kola nut had higher moisture content (56.80%), ash (2.25%), and fat (2.90%) than sprouted gworo with respective 50.18%, 1.90% and1.40% for moisture, ash and fat. Also, un-sprouted ojigbo had higher moisture (47.00%), ash (2.03%) and fat (6.44%) as against respective 43.10%, 1.50% and 4.44% from un-sprouted gworo for moisture, ash and fat. Un-sprouted gworo had higher protein (5.95%), fiber (7.27%) and carbohydrate (37.75%) as against 5.33%, 6.80% and 32.42% from un-sprouted ojigbo kola nut for protein, fiber and carbohydrate. Similarly, sprouted gworo had higher protein (6.65%), fiber (6.60%) and carbohydrate (32.65%) than respective 6.30%, 5.30% and 26.45% from sprouted ojigbo. Sensory scores showed that sprouting reduced all the sensory attributes evaluated in both gworo and ojigbo. Colour was reduced from 6.60 to 5.50 and 5.85 to 5.65 respectively in un-sprouted gworo and sprouted ojigbo. Also, crispness was reduced from 6.55 to 5.95 and 6.55 to 5.45 respectively from un-sprouted gworo and sprouted ojigbo kola nuts. Bitterness was reduced from 6.05 to 5.85 and 6.40 to 5.25 respectively from un-sprouted gworo to sprouted ojigbo. Similarly, general acceptability was reduced from 6.55 to 5.35 in un-sprouted gworo and sprouted ojigbo while acceptability reduction of 6.10 to 5.40 was obtained in un-sprouted and sprouted ojigbo kola nuts respectively.


Sustainable Food Production (Volume 2)
I. N. Okwunodulu and S.C. Ukeje, "Influence of Sprouting on Proximate and Sensory Properties of Gworo (Cola nitida) and Ojigbo (Cola acuminata) Kola Nuts", Sustainable Food Production, Vol. 2, pp. 29-36, 2018
Online since:
June 2018

[1] Nairaland Forum. Advantages and Disadvantages of Kola nut. Available: Accessed on 24/01/17.

[2] Baseline of Health Foundation. Kola nut (Cola acumnata). Health benefits of kola nuts. Available: Accessed on 19/01/17.

[3] Veggies Info. Kolanut. Available: Accessed on 19/01/17.

[4] Wikipedia. Phytochemical. Available: Accessed on 19/01/17.

[5] M.O. Ene, Kolanut Communion: Diaspora dimensions, 2001. Available: Accessed on 26/10/17.

[6] E.A. Dewole et al., Proximate and phytochemical of Cola nitida and Cola acuminate, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 16(22) (2013) 1593-1596.


[7] D. Dah-Nouvlessounon et al., Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of three kola nuts (Cola nitida, Cola acuminate, and Garcinia Cola) produced in Benin, Food and Nutrition Sciences. 6(15) (2015) 1395-1407.


[8] F. Decker. 2017. What cola nuts do to the body. Available: http;//healthy eating. Accessed on 19/01/17.

[9] S. Atawodi et al., Nitrosatable amines and nitrosamideformation in natural stimulants: cola acuminata, C.nitida and Garcinia cola, Food and Chemical Toxicology. 33(8) (1995) 625-630.


[10] J.O. Ibu et al., The effect of Cola acuminate and Ccola nitida on gastric acid secretion, Scandinavian journal of Gastroenterology, Supplement. 21 (1986) 39-45.

[11] J. Lewis. 2017. Health Benefits of the Kola nut. Available: Accessed on 19/0/17.

[12] M. Blades, Functional foods or nutraceuticals, Nutr. Food Sci. 30(20) (2000) 73-75.

[13] Afropedia. How to grow the kola (Cola) nut tree. Available: the-kola-cola-nut=tree. Accessed on 23/02/17.

[14] M. Marton, The role of sprouts in human nutrition. A review, Acta Univ. Sapientiae. Alimentaria. 3 (2010) 81-117.

[15] J.W. Finley, Proposed criteria for assessing the efficacy of cancer reduction by plant foods enriched in carotenoids, glucosinolates, polyphenols and selenocompounds, Annals of Botany. 95(7) (2005) 1075-1096.


[16] G.P. Webb, Dietary supplements and functional foods, Blackwell publishing limited, Oxford, (2006).

[17] I.N. Okwunodulu, F.U. Okwunodulu, S.C. Ukeje, Selected phytochemical assessment of sprouted Gworo (Cola nitida) and Ojigbo (Cola acuminata) kola nuts, International Journal of Medical Research and Applications. 1(1) (2017) 47-51.

[18] Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 2000. Official methods of analysis (Vol.1117th edition) of AOAC International. Washington, DC, USA.

[19] C.S. James, The analytical chemistry of food, Chapman and Hall, New York. 14 (1995) 21-27.

[20] M.O. Iwe, Current trends in sensory evaluation of foods, Rejoint Communication Services, Uwani Enugu, Nigeria, (2007).

[21] O.O. Atanda et al., The quality of Nigerian kola nuts, African Journal of food Science. 5(17) (2011) 904-909.

[22] F.C. Mokwunye, Functional characteristics of kola nut powder for beverage production, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria, (2009).

[23] A.C. Odebode, Further studies on the effect of preservation of kola nuts, Annual Report of Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, (1984).

[24] C.O. Jayeola, Preliminary studies on the use of kola nuts (Cola nitida) for soft drink production, J. Food Technol. Afr. 6(1) (2001) 25-26.


[25] S.S. Arogba, Comparative analysis of the moisture isotherms, proximate compositions, physical and functional properties of dried Cola nitida and Garcinia kola kernel, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 13(2) (2000) 139-148.


[26] A.I. Ajai et al., Proximate and mineral compositions of different species of kola nuts, European Journal Applied Engineering and Scientific Research. 1(3) (2012) 44-47.

[27] G. Lemaire, X. Charrier, Y. Hebert, Nitrogen uptake capacities of maize and kola nuts in Nigeria, Pakistan J. Nutr. 9 (1996) 512-515.

[28] D.J. Voet, J.G. Voet, C.W. Pratt, The principles of Biochemistry, 3nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., (2008).

[29] S.O. Agbeniyi, M.S. Ayodele, Effect of storage moulds on the nutritional quality of kola nuts in Nigeria, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 9(6) (2010) 512-515.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.