Subscribe

Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILSHS > Volume 9 > Pestis (Yersinia pestis) - As Biological Weapons
< Back to Volume

Pestis (Yersinia pestis) - As Biological Weapons

Full Text PDF

Abstract:

Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a type of bacterium. It is believed to have been responsible for plagues of the early 1300s. More accurately, it is a Gram-negative rod-shaped coccobacillus. It is a facultative anaerobe that can infect humans and other animals. Human Y. pestis infection takes three main forms: pneumonic, septicemic, and bubonic plagues. All three forms are widely believed to have been responsible for a number of high-mortality epidemics throughout human history, including the Justinianic Plague of the sixth century and the Black Death that accounted for the death of at least one-third of the European population between 1347 and 1353. It has now been shown conclusively that these plagues originated in rodent populations in China. More recently, Y. pestis has gained attention as a possible biological warfare agent and the CDC has classified it as a category A pathogen requiring preparation for a possible terrorist attack. Every year, thousands of cases of plague are still reported to the World Health Organization, although, with proper treatment, the prognosis for victims is now much better. A five- to six-fold increase in cases occurred in Asia during the time of the Vietnam war, possibly due to the disruption of ecosystems and closer proximity between people and animals. Plague also has a detrimental effect on non-human mammals. In the United States of America, animals such as the black-tailed prairie dog and the endangered black-footed ferret are under threat from the disease.

Info:

Periodical:
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences (Volume 9)
Pages:
84-94
Citation:
P. Daniszewski "Pestis (Yersinia pestis) - As Biological Weapons", International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, Vol. 9, pp. 84-94, 2013
Online since:
September 2013
Export:
Distribution:
References:

Alibek K. Biohazard, New York: Random House; 1999: 15-28, 29-38, 70-86, 137-52.

Arciuch H., Stale aktualne zagrożenie wąglik. Przegl. Epid. 2001, 55, Supl. 2, 169-179.

Aslan G., Terzioglu A., Surgical management of cutaneus anthrax. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1998, 41, 5, 468-470.

Bacharz M., Michalczyk-Borawska A., Łuniewski J., Radom P., Przegl. Epid. 51(3) (1997) 317-319.

Barnard N. A., Ophtalmic. Physiol. Opt. 10 (1990) 300-301.

Binczycka-Anholcer M., Imiołek A. 2011. Bioterrorism as a form of modern terrorism. Hygeia Public Health, 46(3), 326-333.

Borio L, Inglesby T, Peters C. J., i in. Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses as Biological Weapons. Medical and Public Health Management. JAMA, 2002, 287, 391-405.

Boudghéne-Stambouli O., Mérad-Boudia A., Aissa-Mamoun A.: Anthrrax: an unusual escharotic lesion. Dermatol. Venereol. 1999, 126, 718-719.

Celebi S., Aykan U., Alagoz G., Esmerligil S.: Palpebral anthrax. Eur. J. Ophtalmol. 2001, 11, 2, 171-174.

Cherkasskiy B. L., J. Appl. Microbiol. 87 (1999) 192-195.

Chomiczewski K, Kocik J, Szkoda M. T., Bioterroryzm. Zasady postępowania lekarskiego. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL; 2002: 15-25, 117-22, 128-35, 142-8, 150-8, 163-7, 190-4, 1 96-9.

Chomiczewski K., Przegl. Epidemiol. 57 (2003) 355-61.

Croddy E, Perez-Armendariz C, Hart J. Chemical and Biological Warfare - A Comprehensive.

Daniszewski P., International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences 1 (2013) 28-34.

Daniszewski P., International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences 3 (2013) 54-68.

Debord T., Vidal D., Pulmonary anthrax. Rev. Pneumonol. Clin. 1998, 54, 377-381.

Dennis D. T., Inglesby T. V., Henderson D. A., i in. Tularemia as a Biological Weapon. JAMA 2001; 285: 2763-2773.

Emond R. T. D., Rowland H. A. K., Welsby P. D., Atlas chorób zakaźnych. Springer PWN, Warszawa (1996).

Franz D. R., Jahrling P. B., Friedlander A. M., i in. Clinical Recognition and Management of Patient Exposed to Biological Warfare Agents. JAMA 1997; 278: 399411.

Friedlander A. M., J. Appl. Microbiol. 2 (1987) 303.

Furowicz A. J., Boroń-Kaczmarska A., Czernomys-Furowicz D., Przegl. Epid. 53 (1999) 3-4, 309-317.

Gewolb J. Bioterrorism: Labs tighten security, regardless of need. Science 2001, 16, 294, 1437.

Guzy J., Broń biologiczna - charakterystyka i zagrożenia. Biuletyn Stowarzyszenia Higieny i Lecznictwa 2001: 4.

Heisbourg F., Wojny, Prognozy XXI wieku, Warszawa: Prószyński i S-ka, 1998, s. 55.

Inglesby T. V., Henderson D. A., Bartlett J. G., Ascher M. S., Eitzen E., Friedlander A. M. i wsp., Anthrax as a biological weapon. Medical and public health managment. JAMA 1999, 281, 1735-1737.

Inglesby T. V., 0'Toole T., Henderson D. A., i in. Anthrax as a Biological Weapon. JAMA 2002; 287: 2236-52.

Inglesby T. V., Dennis D. T., Henderson D. A., i in. Plague as a Biological Weapon. JAMA 2000; 283: 2281-90.

Kalenik J., Bioterroryzm - zagrożenie XXI wieku. Centralny Ośrodek Szkolenia Straży Granicznej, Koszalin 2003: 48.

Kałużewski S., Wąglik W., Magdzik M., Naruszewicz-Lesiuk D. [red. ]. Zakażenia i zarażenia człowieka. Epidemiologia, zapobieganie i zwalczanie. PZWL, Warszawa 2001, ss. 407-412.

Kaufmann A. F., Meltzer M. I., Schmid G. P., The Economic Impact of A Bioterroristic Attack: Are Prevention and Postattack Intervention Programs Justifable? Emerg Inf Dis 1997; 3: 83-94.

Klein L, Merka V., J Armed Forces Medical Services 74 (2001) 46-8.

Kutuluk M.T., Secmeer G., Kanra G., Celiker A., Aksoyek H.: Cutaneus anthrax. Cutis 1987, 40, 2, 117-118.

Langbein K, Skalnik C, Smolek I. Bioterroryzm. Muza, Warszawa 2003: 62.

Mallon E., McKee P.H.: Extraordinary case report cutaneus anthrax. Am. J. Dermatopathol. 1997, 19, 1, 79-82.

Patra G., Vaissaire J., Weber-Levy M., LeDoujet C., Mock M.: Molecular characterisation of baccillus strains involved in outbreaks of anthrax in France in 1997. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1998, 36, 11, 3412-3414.

Puzanowska B, Czauż-Andrzejuk A., Bioterroryzm. Przegląd Epidemiologiczny 2001, 3: 381.

Samad M. A., Anthrax in man and cattle in Bangladesh. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1986, 89, 1, 43-45.

Stojek M. Wspołczesne zagrożenia bronią biologiczną - bioterroryzm. Medycyna Ogolna (2008).

Survey for the Concerned Citizen. New York: Springer - Verlag Inc.; 2002: 67-9, 204-12, 259-60.

Terziglou A., Aslan G.: Ulnar nerve lesion due to cutaneus anthrax. Ann. Plast. Surg. 1999, 43, 6, 644-645.

Turnbull P. C, Doganay M., Lindeque P.M., Aygen B., McLaughlin J.: Serology and anthrax in humans, livestock and Etosha National Park Wildlife. Epidemiol. Infect. 1992, 108, 2, 299-313.

Wszelaki S.: Wąglik. W: Wszelaki S. [red. ]. Zarys kliniki chorób zakaźnych. PZWL, Warszawa 1954, ss. 481-485.

Zgorniak-Nowosielska I,. Ospa prawdziwa jako broń biologiczna - rozpoznawanie, leczenie i aspekty zdrowia publicznego. Medycyna Praktyczna - Pediatria 2001, 6: 59. ( Received 16 August 2013; accepted 21 August 2013 ).

Show More Hide