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Assessment of Social Vulnerability of Households to Floods in Niger State, Nigeria

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Flood is known to cause devastating livelihood impacts, suffering and economic damages. To reduce the impact of floods, it is very important to identify and understand the socio-economic factors that determine people’s ability to cope with stress or change. Consequently, the study assesses the social vulnerability of the households to floods in Niger State, in order to provide the empirical evidence necessary for flood adaptation policies and strategies in the state. The data for the research were obtained from the household survey and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive and statistical analysis. The results show that flood events in the study area were caused by heavy rainfall, compounded by the opening of the Shiroro dam gate to release the excess flood in the reservoir. Moreover, results of Student “t” test and One-Way Analysis of Variance on socio-economic characteristics show that households’ major economic activities, educational status, household size, income distribution, and membership of cooperative society were significant at p < .05. Since the household respondents who depend primarily on farming, do not have formal education, family size > 10, do not belong to cooperative society and earn less that N21000 per month have higher mean frequency, thus, the predominant households were, therefore, farmers, illiterate, have large family size, poor, and have no access to loan. Thus, the socio-economic characteristics of the households in the study area contribute to their vulnerability to floods by reducing their coping capacity. Based on the results of the assessment, it is recommended that measures are taken to mainstream flood adaptation (livelihood diversification through finance and technical assistance like loans and capacity building) into the development process.


International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences (Volume 84)
J. N. Eze et al., "Assessment of Social Vulnerability of Households to Floods in Niger State, Nigeria", International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, Vol. 84, pp. 22-34, 2018
Online since:
October 2018

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