This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
 N. Middleton, An Introduction to Environmental Issues: The Global Casino, New York, 2003, pp.366-372.
 S. Rufat et al., Social vulnerability to floods: review of case studies and implications for measurement, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 14(4) (2015) 470-486.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.09.013
 A.M.S. Ali, September 2004 flood event in South Western Bangladesh: A study of its nature, causes, and human perception and adjustments to a new hazard, Natural Hazards. 40 (2007) 89-111.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-006-0006-x
 J.N. Eze, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Extremes: A Case Study of Flooding in Niger State, Nigeria, M.Sc. Thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, (2006).
 T.I. Akukwu, C. Ogbodo, Spatial Analysis of Vulnerability to Flooding in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria, SAGE. 5(1) (2015) 1-9.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015575558
 O.G. Chinwendu et al., Households vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability induced water stress on downstream Kaduna River Basin, American Journal of Climate Change. 6 (2017) 247-267.DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2017.62013
 M.A. Hula, J.C. Udoh, An assessment of the impact of flood events in Makurdi, Nigeria, Civil and Environmental Research. 7(10) (2015) 53-60.
 K.C. Samir, Community vulnerability to floods and landslides in Nepal, Ecology and Society. 18(1) (2013) 8.
 IPCC, Climate change 2001: Impact, Adaptability and Vulnerability contribution of working II to the third Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on climate change, Geneva; UNEP/WMO, (2001).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/095968360301300516
 C. Vogel, Seven fat years and seven lean years? Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa, IDS III Bulletin, Institute of Development Studies. 36(2) (2005).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2005.tb00192.x
 I.O. Adelekan, Vulnerability assessment of an urban flood in Nigeria: Abeokuta flood 2007, Natural Hazards. 56 (2010) 215-231.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-010-9564-z
 I.A. Iyanda, River Niger Flood and Flood Management for sustainable Hydroelectric Power Generation at Kainji Dam, Unpublished MSc Research, Federal University of Technology, Minna, (2003).
 S. Mukhopadhyay, A geo-environmental assessment of flood dynamics in lower Ajoy River inducing sand splay problem in Eastern India, Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. 3(2) (2010) 1-15.DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v3i2.59841
 T.E. Ologunorisa, M.J. Abawua, Flood risk assessment: A review, Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental Management. 9(1) (2005) 57-63.
 S. Hajat et al., The human health consequences of flooding in Europe and the implications for public health: a review of the evidence, Appl. Environ. Sci. Public Health. 1 (2003) 13–21.
 E. Lisa, F. Schipper, Climate Change Adaptation and Development: Exploring the linkages, Tyndall Center, Working Paper No.107, (2009).
 B. Smit, T. Wandel, Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability, Global Environmental Change. 16(3) (2008) 282-292.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.03.008
 K. Allen, Vulnerability Reduction and the Community-Based Approach: A Philippines Study, in: M. Pelling (Ed.), Natural Disasters and Development in a Globalizing World, New York: Routledge, 2003, p.170–184.
 W.N. Adger, M. Kelly, Social vulnerability to climate change and the architecture of entitlements, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 4 (1999) 253–266.
 K. O'Brien et al., Mapping Vulnerability to Multiple Stressors: Climate Change and Globalization in India, Global Environmental Change. 14(4) (2004) 303–313.
 W.N. Adger et al., New indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Technical Report 7 1-46, (2004).
 W.N. Adger, Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam, World Development. 27(2) (1999) 249–269.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0305-750x(98)00136-3
 J.N. Eze et al., Analysis of Farmers' Vulnerability to Climate Change in Niger State, Nigeria, International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences. 82 (2018) 1-9.DOI: https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ilshs.82.1
 S. Kumar, Santosh, Flood Risk Zoning of Satluj River Basin, Himachal Pradesh, India, International Letters of Natural Sciences. 40 (2015) 6-15.DOI: https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ilns.40.6
 G. Bankoff, Constructing vulnerability: The historical, natural and social generation of flooding in metropolitan Manila, Disasters. 27 (2003) 224-238.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7717.00230
 R. Few, Flooding, vulnerability and coping strategies: Local responses to a global threat, Progress in Development Studies. 3 (2003) 43-58.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1191/1464993403ps049ra
 M.I.M. Kaleel, Land Degradation Analysis on Coastal Area of Ampara District, International Letters of Natural Sciences. 53 (2016) 80-86.DOI: https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ilns.53.80
 J.H. Diaz, The Public Health Impact of Hurricanes and major Flooding, J. La State Med. Soc.156(3) (2004) 145–150.
 J.S. Lee, H.I Choi, Comparison of Flood Vulnerability Assessments to Climate Change by Construction Frameworks for a Composite Indicator, Sustainability. 10 (2018) 768.DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030768
 B.J. Garnier, Weather conditions in Nigeria. Climatological Research Series, No.2. McGill University, Montreal, Canada, (1967).
 N.P. Iloeje, A new geography of Nigeria, Lagos, Longman, Nigeria Limited, (1982).
 T. Yamane, Statistics: An introductory analysis (2nd ed.), New York, NY: Harper and Row, (1967).
 R.N.C. Anyadike, Statistical Methods for the Social and Environmental Sciences, Spectrum, Ibadan, (2007).
 P.E. Udofia, Educational of Social Sciences Statistics, Immaculate Pub. Ltd, (2006).
 G.B. Norcliffe, Inferential Statistics for Geographers, London, (1977).
 ADEA, Diversifying Education Delivery System. Reviving Discourse on the Formal//Non-formal Interface. Report of the Workshop on Non-formal education, Gabrone, Botswana, 2013, pp.23-26.
 S Devereux, J. Edwards, Climate Change and food Security, IDS III Bulletin, Institute of Development Studies. 35(3) (2004).
 S.A. Tiamiyu et al., Rainfall Variability and Its Effect on Yield of Rice in Nigeria, International Letters of Natural Sciences. 49 (2015) 63-68.DOI: https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ilns.49.63
 P.M. Mbithi, B.M. Wisner, Drought and Famine in Kenya. Magitude and attempted solutions, Journal of Eastern African Research and Development. 3 (1973) 113-143.
 C.M. Kamau et al., Case studies of Drought Impacts and Responses in Central and Eastern Kenya, in: T.E. Downing, K.W. Gitu, C.M. Kamau (Eds.), Coping with drought in Kenya. National and local strategies, Boulder and London, 1989, pp.211-230.DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3601905
 T. Reardon, P. Matlon, Seasonal Food Insecurity and Vulnerability in Drought Affected Regions of Burkina Faso, in: D.E. Sahn, (Ed), Seasonal variability in third world agriculture. The consequences for food security, Baltimore: International Food Policy Research Institute/John Hopkins University press, 1989, pp.118-136.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/003072709001900416
 FEWSNET, Annual Performance and Monitoring Report for the year 2000. Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWSNET), Chemonics International Inc. Washington DC. 2000. www.fews.net/resources/gcontent/pdf/1000053.pdf.
 FIVIMS, Report on Geniver meeting on vulnerability. Fifth meeting of the subgroup on indicators, assessment and mapping, Geniva from 10-11 July 2000. Food Insecurity and vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS), Rome. (2000).
 B.P. Simon, A. Garba, G.M. Bunu, Determinants of sustainable agricultural and management practices among arable crop farmers in Northern part of Taraba State, Nigeria, Journal of Science and Technology. 3(7) (2013).