This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
 J. Amuzu et al., The climate change vulnerability and risk management matrix for the coastal zone of the Gambia. Hydrology. 5(1) (2018) 14.DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology5010014
 K. O'Brien et al., Mapping vulnerability to multiple stressors: climate change and globalization in India, Global Environmental Change. 14(4) (2004) 303–313.
 L.I. Erda et al., Synopsis of China National Climate Change Assessment Report (II): Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation, Advances in Climate Research, 3 (Suppl.), 2007, p.6–11.
 P. Kurukulasuriya, R. Mendelsohn, A Ricardian analysis of the impact of climate change on African crop land, CEEPA Discussion Paper 8, Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, (2006).
 P. Reid, C. Vogel, Living and responding to multiple stressors in South Africa: glimpses from Kwazulu-Natal, Global Environmental Change. 16 (2008) 195–206.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.01.003
 P. Tschakert, Views from the vulnerable: understanding climatic and other stressors in the Sahel, Global Environmental Change. 17(3-4) (2009) 381–396.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.11.008
 S.A. Tiamiyu et al., Rainfall variability and its effect on yield of rice in Nigeria, International Letters of Natural Sciences. 49 (2015) 63–68.DOI: https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ilns.49.63
 Niger State Bureau of Statistics, Socio-economic Survey, 2014. Available: www.nigerstats.ni.gov.ng.
 T. Deressa, R.M. Hassan, C. Ringler, Measuring Ethiopian farmers' vulnerability to climate change across regional states, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Discussion Paper 00806, (2008).
 W.N. Adger, Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal Vietnam, World Development. 27(2) (1999) 249–269.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0305-750x(98)00136-3
 H.-M. Füssel, R.J.T. Klein, Climate change vulnerability assessments: an evolution of conceptual thinking, Climatic Change. 75(3) (2006) 301–329.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-006-0329-3
 H.M. Füssel, Vulnerability: a generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research, Global Environmental Change. 17(2) (2007) 155–167.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.05.002
 IPCC, Climate change 2014. Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and sectoral aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, C.B. Field et al. (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, (2014).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01944363.2014.954464
 S.L. Cutter, B.J. Boruff, W.L. Shirley, Social vulnerability to environmental hazards, Social Sciences Quarterly. 84(2) (2003) 243–261.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6237.8402002
 C. Easter, Small states development: A commonwealth vulnerability index, The Round Table. 351(1) (1999) 403–422.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/003585399107947
 U. Kaly, C. Pratt, Environmental vulnerability index: Development and provisional indices and profiles for Fiji, Samoa, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. Phase II report for NZODA, SOPAC Technical Report 306, (2000).
 B.J. Garnier, Weather conditions in Nigeria, Climatological Research Series, No. 2, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, (1967).
 N.P. Iloeje, A new geography of Nigeria, Lagos, Longman, Nigeria Limited, (1982).
 T. Yamane, Statistics, An introductory analysis (2nd ed.), Harper and Row, New York, (1967).
 R.N.C. Anyadike, Statistical Methods for the Social and Environmental Sciences, Spectrum, Ibadan, (2007).
 T.W. Anderson, An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis, Wiley, New York, (1958).
 H. Abdi, M. Béra, Correspondence analysis, in: R. Alhajj, J. Rokne (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Social Networks and Mining, Springer Verlag, New York, (2014).
 I.A. Madu, Spatial vulnerability of rural households to climate change in Nigeria: implications for internal security, The International Journal of Climate Change Impacts and Responses. 3(4) (2012) 79–97.DOI: https://doi.org/10.18848/1835-7156/cgp/v03i04/37134
 M. Tester, Langridge, Breeding technologies to increase crop production in a changing world, Science. 327 (2015) 818–822.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1183700
 J. Eze, C. Vogel, P. Ibrahim, "Assessment of Social Vulnerability of Households to Floods in Niger State, Nigeria", International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, Vol. 84, p. 22, 2018DOI: https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILSHS.84.22
 J. Eze, "Drought occurrences and its implications on the households in Yobe state, Nigeria", Geoenvironmental Disasters, Vol. 5, 2018DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40677-018-0111-7
 R. Onyeneke, C. Emenekwe, J. Munonye, C. Nwajiuba, U. Uwazie, M. Amadi, C. Izuogu, C. Njoku, L. Onyeneke, "Progress in Climate–Agricultural Vulnerability Assessment in Nigeria", Atmosphere, Vol. 11, p. 190, 2020DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11020190
 J. Eze, P. Onokala, "Pattern of household vulnerability to desertification in Yobe state, Nigeria", GeoJournal, 2021DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-021-10395-5
 D. Awolala, I. Ajibefun, K. Ogunjobi, R. Miao, "Integrated assessment of human vulnerability to extreme climate hazards: emerging outcomes for adaptation finance allocation in Southwest Nigeria", Climate and Development, p. 1, 2021DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2021.1898925
 J. Eze, B. Salihu, U. Gbanguba, M. Alfa, N. Ayanniyi, J. Ekaette, B. Olaniyan, "Rainfall Variability and its Impact on Crop Production in Niger State, Nigeria", BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, Vol. 3, p. 46, 2021DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202102015
 B. Ocheni, M. Ndanitsa, K. Baba, M. Ojo, "Assessment of Vulnerability of Rice farmers to Climate Variability in Kogi State, North Central Nigeria: A Vulnerability Composite Index Approach", BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, Vol. 3, p. 37, 2021DOI: https://doi.org/10.35849/BJARE202003009
 D. Awolala, I. Ajibefun, K. Ogunjobi, R. Miao, "Integrated assessment of human vulnerability to extreme climate hazards: emerging outcomes for adaptation finance allocation in Southwest Nigeria", Climate and Development, Vol. 14, p. 166, 2022DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2021.1898925
 H. Chen, J. Cao, H. Zhu, Y. Wang, "Understanding Household Vulnerability and Relative Poverty in Forestry Transition: A Study on Forestry-Worker Families in China’s Greater Khingan Mountains State-Owned Forest Region", Sustainability, Vol. 14, p. 4936, 2022DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094936