This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
 A. Abu Galah, A. Abdul Rahman, The role of knowledge management in improving the quality of higher education institutions outputs (2013-2015), Unpublished PhD thesis, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Graduate School, Khartoum, Sudan, (2016).
 S. S. Abu Naser et al., Knowledge Management in ESMDA: Expert System for Medical Diagnostic Assistance, AIML Journal, 10(1) (2010) 31-40.
 B. Al Mazroui, Build a model to achieve excellence in the performance of the security services, Unpublished Doctoral thesis, Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, Faculty of Graduate Studies, Department of Administrative Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, (2010).DOI: https://doi.org/10.19070/2332-287x-1500050
 A. Al-Medalal, KM implementation in the Palestinian government institutions and their impact on the level of performance, Unpublished MA Thesis, Islamic University, Faculty of Commerce, Gaza, Palestine, (2012).
 S. Anzi, A. Abedi, F. Ali Kazim, The role of knowledge management in achieving outstanding university performance, Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences. 15 (2009) 1-14.
 APQC How Mature is Your KM Program?, The international resource for benchmarks and best practices, Available From: http: /www. apqc. org/km, (2011).
 G. Bock et al., Behavioral Intention Formation in Knowledge Sharing: Examining the Roles of Extrinsic Motivators, Social-Psychological Forces, and Organizational Climate, MIS Quarterly. 29(1) (2005) 87-111.
 T. Bolat, O. Yılmaz, The Relationship between Outsourcing and Organizational Performance, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 21(1) (2009) 7-23.
 S. S. Chahal, S. Savita, Knowledge Sharing Among University Teaching Staff: A Case Study, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, India, (2014).
 D. Cranfield, J. Taylor, Knowledge Management and Higher Education: A UK Case Study, Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management. 6(2) (2008) 85-100.
 R. Fullwood, J. Rowley, R. Delbridge, Knowledge Sharing Amongst Academics in UK Universities, Journal of Knowledge Management. 17(1) (2013) 1-39.
 A. Gad, The management of universities and institutions of higher education, curriculum development and optimization strategies, Dar modern writers, Cairo, Egypt, (2010).
 S. Hadi, Change the Arab higher education institutions towards quality management quality and high performance, Arabic magazine to ensure the quality of university education. 11 (2013) 243-305.
 S. Hannouna, Knowledge Management in Higher Education Institutions Forum, in Conference on e-learning and knowledge economies, Al-Quds Open University, Gaza, Palestine, (2011).
 A. Hilah, Proposed Model for learning organizations as an entry point for institutional excellence, Unpublished PhD thesis, Suez Canal University, Faculty of Commerce, Ismailia, Egypt, (2014).
 D. Hislop, Knowledge Management in Organizations, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 3rd Ed, UK, (2013).
 R. Hoss, A. Schlussel, How Do You Measure the Knowledge Management (KM) Maturity of Your Organization? Metrics That Assess an Organization's KM State, US Army War College, Carlisle, PA, (2009).
 W. Vestal, Measuring Knowledge Management (KM) Maturity, The American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC), (2002).
 G. Turner, C. Minonne, Measuring the Effects of Knowledge Management Practices, Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management. 8(1) (2010) 61 – 170.
 C. Hubert, D. Lemons, APQC's Levels of Knowledge Management Maturity, APQC, 2010, pp.1-24.
 E. Kamhawi, Knowledge management fishbone: a standard framework of organizational enablers, Journal of Knowledge Management. 16(5) (2012) 808-828.
 C. Khairuddin, E-governance as a tool to enable knowledge management, Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Mohamed Khedira, College of Business Economic Sciences, Biskra, Algeria (2015).
 N. Khatibian, T. Pour, H. Jafari, Measurement of Knowledge Management Maturity Level within Organizations, Business Strategy Series. 11(1) (2010) 54-70.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17515631011013113
 H. Khodaeea et al., Investigating the effect of knowledge management on human resources productivity, Management Science Letters. (2016) 259–264.
 M. Laal, Knowledge Management in Higher Education, Procedia Computer Science. 3 (2011) 544–549.
 C. Lee, K. Wong, Development and Validation of Knowledge Management Performance Measurement Constructs for Small and Medium Enterprises, Journal of Knowledge Management. 19(4) (2015) 711 – 734.
 S. Lee, P. Tseng, The Effect of Knowledge Management Capability and Dynamic Capability on Organizational Performance, Journal of Enterprise Information Management. 27 (2014) 1-43.
 J. Mikulecka, P. Mikulecky, University Knowledge Management-Issues and Prospects, University of Hardec Karlove, Hardec Kralove, Czech Republic, 2005, pp.1-8.
 B. Miller, Assessing Organizational Performance in Higher Education, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, (2007).
 A. Mills, T. Smith, Knowledge Management and Organizational Performance: A Decomposed View, Journal of Knowledge Management. 15(1) (2011) 156-171.
 M. Sayyed, Knowledge management as an input to enhance competitiveness, Unpublished MA Thesis, Banha University, Faculty of Commerce, Banha, Egypt, (2014).
 J. O'Brien, The Need for a Robust Knowledge Assessment Framework: Discussion and Findings from an Exploratory Case Study, Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management. 11(1) (2013) 93-106.
 H. Pedrona, Knowledge management as one of the basic pillars in the survival of business organizations and increase their efficiency, in Fifth International Conference on Intellectual Capital in the Arab business organizations in the light of modern economies, Hassiba Ben Bu Ali University, Chlef, Algeria, (2011).
 L. Petrides, T. Nodine, Knowledge Management in Education: Defining the landscape, The Institute of Knowledge Management in Education, CA, USA, (2003).
 R. Pircher, A. Pausits, Information and Knowledge Management at Higher Education Institutions, Management Information Systems. 6(2) (2011) 8-16.
 M. Piri, M. Jasemi, M. Abdi, Intellectual capital and knowledge management in the Iranian space industries, Journal of information and knowledge management systems. 43(3) (2013) 341-356.
 Q. Hasina, The role of knowledge management to improve corporate performance, Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Mohamed Khedira, College of Business Economic Sciences, Biskra, Algeria, (2016).
 M. Ragab, A. Arisha, Knowledge Management and Measurement: A Critical Review, Journal of Knowledge Management. 17(6) (2013) 873-901.
 M. Rahman et al., Knowledge Sharing Behaviors among Non-Academic Staff of Higher Learning Institutions, Library Review. 65(2) (2016) 65-83.
 S. Ramachandran, S. Chong, K. Wong, Knowledge Management Practices and Enablers in Public Universities: A Gap Analysis, Campus-Wide Information Systems. 30(2) (2013) 76-94.
 G. Rivera, I. Rivera, Design, Measurement and Analysis of a Knowledge Management Model in the Context of a Mexican University, INNOVAR. 26(59) (2016) 21-34.
 M. Sandhu, K. Jain, A. Ir Umi Kalthom bte, Knowledge Sharing among Public Sector Employees: Evidence from Malaysia, International Journal of Public Sector Management. 24(3) (2011) 206-226.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09513551111121347
 L. Sangjae, G. Byung, K. Hoyal, An Integrated View of Knowledge Management for Performance, Journal of Knowledge Management. 16(2) (2012) 183-203.
 Y. Sawi, Knowledge management and information technology, Oman: Dar Al-Sahab, Jordan, (2007).
 A. Seleim, O. Khalil, Understanding the knowledge management-intellectual capital relationship: a two-way analysis, Journal of Intellectual Capital. 12(4) (2011) 586-614.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/14691931111181742
 D. Sensuse, S. Rohajawati, Knowledge Management: Workshop APO Framework, International Journal of Computer Science Issues. 10(2) (2013) 25-32.
 M. Stankosky, Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management, Elsevier, (2011).
 H. Suleiman, The relationship between knowledge management and organizational performance, Journal of Accounting and Management and Insurance. 76 (2010) 93-157.
 P. Syysnummi, H. Laihonen, Top Management's Perception of Knowledge Management in a Vocational Education and Training Organization in Finland, International Journal of Educational Management. 28(1) (2014) 53-65.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ijem-04-2013-0067
 A. Yasiri, A. Hussein Zafar, The impact of knowledge management processes in strategic performance, Journal of the University of Babylon. 20(1) (2012) 54-69.
 R. Young, Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques Manual, Tokyo, Japan, (2010).
 M. Zack, J. Mckeen, S. Singh, Knowledge Management and Organizational Performance: An Exploratory Analysis, Journal of Knowledge Management. 13(6) (2009) 392-409.
 Z. Farida, K. Miliana, The impact of knowledge management to raise the performance efficiency in business organizations, in Fifth International Conference on Intellectual Capital in the Arab business organizations in the light of modern economies, Hassiba Ben Bu Ali University, Chlef, Algeria, (2011).
 S. Rani, S., K. Sania, Impact of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance, Advances In Management. 9 (5) (2016) 9-13.
 M. AL-Hayaly, F. Alnajjar, Knowledge Management Processes and Their Impact on Organizational Performance, International Journal of Business and Management. 11(6) (2016) 70-86.
 J. Lee, Y. Shiue, C. Chen, Examining the impacts of organizational culture and top management support of knowledge sharing on the success of software process Improvement, Computers in Human Behavior. 54 (2016) 462-474.
 S.S. Abu Naser, M.J. Al Shobaki, Y.M. Abu Amuna, Measuring knowledge management maturity at HEI to enhance performance-an empirical study at Al-Azhar University in Palestine, International Journal of Commerce and Management Research. 2(5) (2016).
 S.S. Abu Naser, M.J. Al Shobaki, Y.M. Abu Amuna, Knowledge Management. Maturity in Universities and its Impact on Performance Excellence, Comparative study, Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 3(4) (2016) 4-14.
 S.S. Abu Naser, M.J. Al Shobaki, Y.M. Abu Amuna, KMM Factors Affecting High Performance in Universities, Case study on Al-Quds Open University in Gaza-Strip, International Journal of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. 5(5) (2016).