Removed due to plagiarism
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
 Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context. New York: Westview Press.
 Anderson, R., Manoogian, S. T., & Reznick, J. S. (1976). The undermining and enhancing of intrinsic motivation in preschool children. JournaloJ Personalitv and Social Psychology, 34, 915-922.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1685
 Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1998). Intrinsic need satisfaction."A motivational basis of performance and well-being in work settings. Unpublished manuscript, Fordham University.
 Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A socialcognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
 Baumeister, R., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for inte~qpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.117.3.497
 Blais, M. R., Sabourin, S., Boucher, C. & Vallerand, R. J. (1990). Toward a motivational model of couple happiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1021-1031.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1241
 Bowlby, J. (1979). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. London: Tavistock.
 Chandler, C. L., & Connell, J. P. (1987). Children's intrinsic, extrinsic and internalized motivation: A developmental study of children's reasons for liked and disliked behaviours. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 357-365.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835x.1987.tb01072.x
 Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Biddle, S. J. H., & Meek, G. A. (1997). A self-determination theory approach to the study of intentions and the intention-behaviour relationship in children's physical activity. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2, 343-360.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8287.1997.tb00548.x
 Cicchetti, D. (1991). Fractures in the crystal: Developmental psychopathology and the emergence of self. Developmental Review, 11, 271-287.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(91)90014-f
 Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (Vol. 22, pp.43-77). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
 Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Rathunde, K. (1993). The measurement of flow in everyday life: Toward a theory of emergent motivation. In J. E. Jacobs (Ed.), Developmental perspectives on motivation (pp.57-97). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
 deCharms, R. (1968). Personal causation. New York: Academic Press.
 Deci, E. L. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum.
 Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. R. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62, 119-142.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1994.tb00797.x
 Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627-668.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.125.6.627
 Deci, E. L., Nezlek, J., & Sheinman, L. (1981). Characteristics of the rewarder and intrinsic motivation of the rewardee. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 1-10.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35126.96.36.199
 Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.
 Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on motivation (pp.237-288). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
 Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. Kemis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp.31-49). New York: Plenum.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1280-0_3
 Eisenberger, R., & Cameron, J. (1996). Detrimental effects of reward: Reality of myth? American Psychologist, 51, 1153-1166.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.51.11.1153
 Fisher, C. D. (1978). The effects of personal control, competence, and extrinsic reward systems on intrinsic motivation. Organizational Behaviorand Human Performance, 21, 273-288.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(78)90054-5
 Flink, C., Boggiano, A. K., & Barrett, M. (1990). Controlling teaching strategies: Undermining children's self-determination and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 916-924.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35188.8.131.526
 Frederick, C. M., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Self-determination in sport: A review using cognitive evaluation theory. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 5-23.
 Frodi, A., Bridges, L., & Grolnick, W. S. (1985). Correlates of masteryrelated behavior: A short-term longitudinal study of infants in their second year. Child Development, 56, 1291-1298.DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1130244
 Green-Demers, I., Pelletier, L. G., & Menard, S. (1997). The impact of behavioural difficulty on the saliency of the association between self determined motivation and environmental behaviours. Canadian Journalof Behavioural Science, 29, 157-166.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0008-400x.29.3.157
 Grolnick, W. S., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1997), Internalization within the family. In J, E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children's internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory (pp.135-161). New York: Wiley.
 Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). Autonomy in children's learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 890-898.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35184.108.40.2060
 Grolnick, W, S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children's self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143-154.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-06220.127.116.11
 Harter, S. (1978). Effectance motivation reconsidered: Toward a developmental model. Human Development, 1, 661-669.
 Hayamizu, T. (1997). Between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Japanese Psychological Research, 39, 98-108.
 Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
 Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior: An introduction to behavior theory. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
 Johnson, F. A. (1993). Dependency and Japanese socialization. New York: NYU Press.
 Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410-422.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1680
 Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 80-87.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167296223006
 Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (in press). Be careful what you wish for: Optimal functioning and the relative attainment of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. In P. Schmuck & K. M. Sheldon (Eds.), Life goals and well-being. Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science.
 Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Zax, M., & Sameroff, A. J. (1995). The relations of maternal and social environments to late adolescents' materialistic and prosocial values. Developmental Psychology, 31, 907-914.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1247
 Kasser, V., & Ryan, R. M. (in press). The relation of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness to vitality, well-being, and mortality in a nursing home. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.
 Kim, Y.., Butzel, J. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1998, June). Interdependence and well-being: A function of culture and relatedness needs. Paper presented at The International Society for the Study of Personal Relationships, Saratoga Spring, NY.
 Koestner, R., Losier, G. F., Vallerand, R. J., & Carducci, D. (1996). Identified and introjected forms of political internalization: Extending self-detemfination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,7'0, 1025-1036.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35126.96.36.1995
 Kohn, A. (1990). The brighter side of human nature. New York: Basic Books.
 Kuhl, J., & Fuhrmann, A. (1998). Decomposing self-regulation and selfcontrol. In J. Heckhausen & C. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and selfregulation across the life-span (pp.15-49), New York: Cambridge University Press.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511527869.003
 Loevinger, J, & Blasi, A. (1991). Development of the self as subject. In J. Stranss & G. Goethals (Eds.), The self" Interdisciplinary approaches (pp.150-167). New York: Springer-Verlag. children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 203-214.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-8264-5_9
 Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability.
 subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91, 328-346.
 Nix, G., Ryan, R. M., Manly, J. B., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Revitalization through self-regulation: The effects of autonomous and controlled motivation on happiness and vitality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 266-284.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1999.1382
 Reeve, J. (1996). Motivating others. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
 Reis, H. T. (1994). Domains of experience: Investigating relationship processes from three perspectives. In R. Erber & R. Gilmour (Eds.), Theoretical fromeworks for personal relationships (pp.87-110). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
 Reis, H. T., Sheldon, K. M., Gable, S. L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R. M. (in press). Daily well-being: The role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Personali O' and Social Psychology Bulletin.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/t15716-000
 Richins, M. (1987). Media, materialism and human happiness. Advances in Consumer Research, I4, 352-356.
 Ryan, R. M. (1982). Control and information in the intrapersonal sphere: An extension of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 450-461.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35188.8.131.520
 Ryan, R. M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes. Journal of Personality, 63, 397-427.
 Ryan, R. M., Chirkov, V. I., Little, T. D., Sheldon, K. M., Timoshina, E., & Deci, E. L. (1999). The American dream in Russia: Extrinsic aspirations and well-being in two cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1509-1524.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672992510007
 Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 749- 761.
 Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Grolnick, W. S. (1995). Autonomy, relatedness, and the self: Their relation to development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D, J. Cohen (Eds.), evelopmental psychopathology: Theoo' and methods (pp.618-655). New York: Wiley.
 Ryan, R. M., & Frederick, C. M. (1997). On energy, personality, and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being. Journal of Personality, 65, 529-565.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00326.x
 Ryan, R. /Vl., & Grolnick, W. S. (1986). Origins and pawns in the classroom: Self-report and projective assessments of individual differences in children's perceptions. Journal ¢)f Personality and SocialPsychology, 5(2. 550-558.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35184.108.40.2060
 Ryan, R. M., Kuhl, J., & Deci, E. L. (1997). Nature and autonomy: Organizational view of social and neurobiological aspects of selfregulation in behavior and development. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 701-728.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0954579497001405
 Ryan, R. M., & La Guardia. J. G. (in press). What is being optimized over development?: A self-determination theory perspective on basic psychological needs across the life span. In S. Quails & R. Abeles (Eds.), Dialogues on psychology and aging. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/10363-008
 Ryan, R. M., & Lynch, J. (1989). Emotional autonomy versus detachment: Revisiting the vicissitudes of adolescence and young adulthood. Child Development, 60, 340-356.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1989.tb02720.x
 Ryan, R. M., Plant, R. W., & O'Malley, S. (1995). Initial motivations for alcohol treatment: Relations with patient characteristics, treatment involvement and dropout. Addictive Behaviors, 20, 279-297.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603(94)00072-7
 Ryan, R. M., Rigby, S., & King, K. (1993). Two types of religious internalization and their relations to religious orientations and mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 586-596.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35220.127.116.116
 Ryan, R. M., Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T., & Deci, E. L. (1996). All goals are not created equal: An organismic perspective on the nature of goals.
 and their regulation. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp.7-26). New York: Guilford Press.
 Ryan, R. M., Stiller, J., & Lynch, J. H. (1994). Representations of relationships to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 226- 249.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/027243169401400207
 Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness. San Francisco: Freeman.
 Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1998). Pursuing personal goals: Skills enable progress, but not all progress is beneficial. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1319-1331.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672982412006
 Sheldon, K. M., Reis, H. T., & Ryan, R. (1996). What makes for a good day? Competence and autonomy in the day and in the person. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1270-1279.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672962212007
 Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Rawsthorne, L., & Ilardi, B. (1997). Trait self and true self: Cross-role variation in the Big Five traits and its relations with authenticity and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1380-1393.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1680
 Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.
 Steinberg, L., & Silverberg, S. (1986). The vicissitudes of autonomy in adolescence. Child Development, 57, 841-851.DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1130361
 Strahan, B. J. (1995). Marriage, family and religion. Sydney, Australia: Adventist Institute.
 Utman, C. H. (1997). Performance effects of motivational state: A metaanalysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1, 170-182.
 Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimentalsocial psychology (Vol. 29, pp.271-360). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0065-2601(08)60019-2
 Vallerand, R. J., & Bissonnette, R. (1992). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotiwltional styles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personalio', 60, 599-620.
 Vatlerand, R. J., & Reid, G. (1984). On the causal effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Sport Psychology, 6, 94-102.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.6.1.94
 Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678- 691.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1248
 White, R. W. (1963). Ego and reality in psychoanalytic theory. New York: International Universities Press.
 Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,70, 767-779.
 Williams, G. C., Freedman, Z. R., & Deci, E. L. (1998). Supporting autonomy to motivate glucose control in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 21, 1644-1651.DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.21.10.1644
 Williams, G. C., Grow, V. M., Freedman, Z., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 115-126.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-35126.96.36.199
 Williams, G. C., Rodin, G. C., Ryan, R. M., Grolnick, W. S., & Deci, E. L. (1998). Autonomous regulation and long-term medication adherence in adult outpatients. Health Psychology, 17, 269-276-78 ( Received 27 April 2015; accepted 13 May 2015 ).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037//0278-6188.8.131.529