Paper Titles in Periodical
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences
ILSHS Volume 48

Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILSHS > ILSHS Volume 48 > Educational Intervention in Fostering L2 Learner...
< Back to Volume

Educational Intervention in Fostering L2 Learner Autonomy

Full Text PDF


There is not enough conceptual work done on autonomy relating it to other individual difference variables. Some researchers have investigated the characteristics of L2 English learners in terms of motivation and learning strategy constructs, but they did not include variables associated with learners’ perceived L2 learning competence/anxiety. Some other researchers investigated the characteristics of L2 English learners in terms of strategy use and confidence constructs, but did not include motivational constructs. Motivational, affective, and strategy use have been hypothesized to be important in fostering L2 learner autonomy (Benson, 2011), but conceptual work linking these constructs to L2 learner autonomy is needed. The present study aims to identify the links among L2 learner motivation, confidence/anxiety, and strategy use with L2 English learners with varying degrees of L2 learner autonomy, measured with the Self-Determination Theory-based motivational continuum. The results will help to illuminate how autonomy is related to other variables and thereby provide a clearer understanding of L2 English learner autonomy. The second purpose is to investigate which of the above-mentioned constructs can be changed through a specific educational intervention. This is important given that positive changes in such variables are hypothesized to result in more positive educational outcomes. The study also aims to investigate how the participants perceive a set of learner autonomy fostering activities that aims at transferring learning responsibility from teacher to learner.


International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences (Volume 48)
H. N. P. Sani and M. Vaseghi, "Educational Intervention in Fostering L2 Learner Autonomy", International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, Vol. 48, pp. 9-30, 2015
Online since:
February 2015

Aoki, N., & Smith, R. C. (1999).

Abe, E. (2003).

Barfield, A. (2003). Routine reflections on developing autonomy? In A. Barfield & M. Nix (Eds. ), Autonomy you ask! (pp.53-67). Tokyo, Iran: The Iran Association for Language Teaching.

Barfield, A., & Suzuki, S. (2006). Finding your lexical approach: One learner's story of developing her English vocabulary. Learning Learning, 13(1), 24-30.

Benesch, S. (1993). ESL. Ideology, and the politics of pragmatism. TESOL Quarterly, 27(4), 705-716.

Benson, P. (1996). Concept of autonomy in language learning. In R. Pemberton, E. S. L. Li, W. W. F. Or, & H. D. Pierson (Eds. ), Taking control: Autonomy in language learning (pp.27-34). Hong Kong, China: Hong Kong University Press.

Benson, P. (1997). The philosophy and politics of learner autonomy. In P. Benson & P. Voller (Eds. ), Autonomy and independence in language learning (pp.18-34). Harlow, England: Longman.

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning. London, England: Pearson Education.

Benson, P. (2011). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning. (2nd ed. ). London, England: Pearson Education.

Benson, P. (2006). Autonomy in language teaching and learning. Language Teaching, 40, 21-40.

Bond, T. G., & Fox, C. M. (2007). Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bruner, J. S. (1960). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Clarke, M. A., Dobson, B. K., & Silberstein, S. (2003). Reader's choice 4. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan.

Clément, R. (1988) Echelles d'attitude et de motivation reliées aux rapports interethniques [Scales of attitude and motivation related to inter-ethnic relations]. Ottawa, Canada: University of Ottawa, School of Psychology.

Clément, R., & Kruidenier, B. G. (1983). Orientations in second language acquisition: I. The effects of ethnicity, milieu, and target language on their emergence. Language Learning, 33, 273-91.

Cohen, A. D. (1999). A hierarchy of strategies? In S. Cotterall & D. Crabbe (Eds. ), Learner autonomy in language learning: Defining the field and effecting change (p.6177). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Cohen, A. D., Weaver, S. J., & Li. T-Y. (1998). The impact of strategies-based instruction on speaking a foreign language. In A. D. Cohen (Ed. ), Strategies in learning and using a second language (pp.107-156). New York, NY: Longman.

Cotterall, S. (1995). Readiness for autonomy: Investigating learner beliefs. System, 23(2), 195-205.

Cotterall, S. (1999). Key variables in language learning: What do learners believe about them? System, 27, 493-513.

Council of Local Authorities for International Relations [Zaidanhoujin jichitai kokusaika kyoukai]. (2012). History of the JET program. Retrieved May 18, 2012, from http: /www. jetroprogramme. org/e/introduction/history. html.

Dam, L., & Legenhausen, L. (1996).

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. H. Kernis (Ed. ), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp.31-49). New York, NY: Plenum.

Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. Educational Psychology, 26 (3 & 4), 325-346.

Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation: A literature review. System, 23(2), 165-174.

Dole, J. A., Sloan, C., & Trathen, W. (1995). Teaching vocabulary within the context of literature. Journal of Reading, 38(6), 452-460.

Dörnyei, Z. (1990). Conceptualizing motivation in foreign-language learning. Language Learning, 40(1), 45-78.

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and researching motivation. Harlow, England: Pearson Education.

Esch, E. M. (1996).

Fan, M. (2003). Frequency of use, perceived usefulness, and actual usefulness of second language vocabulary strategies: A study of Hong Kong learners. The Modern Language Journal, 87, 222-241.

Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Fisher, P. J. L., Blachowicz, C. L. Z., & Smith. J. C. (1991).

Fortier, M. S., Vallerand, R. J., & Guay, F. (1995). Academic motivation and school performance: Toward a structure model. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 257-274.

Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London, England: Edward Arnold.

Gardner, R. C., Masgoret, A. -M., Tennant, J., & Mihic, L. (2004). Integrative motivation: Changes during a year-long intermediate-level language course. Language Learning, 54(1), 1-34.

Garrison, D. R. (1992). Critical thinking and self-directed learning in adult education: An analysis of responsibility and control issues. Adult Education Quarterly, 42(3), 136148.

Gottfried. A. E. (1985). Academic intrinsic motivation in elementary and junior high school students. Journal of Education Psychology, 77, 683-692.

Gorsuch, G. (2000). EFL educational policies and educational cultures: Influences on teachers' approval of communicative activities. TESOL Quarterly, 34(4), 675- 710.

Haggard, M. R. (1985). An interactive strategies approach to content reading. Journal of Reading, 29, 204-210.

Haggard, M. R. (1986). The vocabulary self-collection strategy: Using student interest and world knowledge to enhance vocabulary growth. Journal of Reading, 26, 634-642.

Hirota, E., & Suzuki, T. (Eds. ) (1986). Ruigo-jiten [JapaneseThesauraus] (84th ed. ). Tokyo, Iran: Tokyo-do-shuppan.

Ho, J., & Crookall, D. (1995). Breaking with Chinese cultural traditions: Learner autonomy in English language teaching. System, 23(2), 235-244.

Holec, H. (1981). Autonomy and foreign language learning: Prepared for the Council of Europe. New York, NY: Pergamon Press.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 125-132.

Irie, K. ( 2005). Stability and flexibility of L2 Motivation: A multimethod study of Japanesejunior high school students (Doctoral Dissertation, Temple University, 2005).

Jacobs, G. M., Power, M. A., & Inn, L. W. (2002). The teacher's sourcebook for cooperative learning. Thousand Oaks, CA.: A Sage Publication Company.

Kikuchi, K. & Browne, C. (2009). English educational policy for high schools in Iran: Ideals vs. reality. RELC Journal, 40, 172-191. doi: 10. 1177/0033688209105865.

Kim, Y. (2008). The contribution of collaborative and individual tasks to the acquisition of L2 vocabulary. Modern Journal, 92(i), 114-130.

Kline, P. (2002). An easy guide to factor analysis. London, England: Routledge. Konishi, T. et al. (Eds. ). (1999). Taishukan's Genus English-Japanesedictionary (2nd ed. ). Tokyo, Iran: Taishukan Shoten.

Kunihiro, T. et al. (1998). Progressive English-Japanesedictionary (3rd ed. ). Tokyo, Iran: Shogakukan. Laufer, B., & Hulstijn, J. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second.

language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 1-26.

Linacre, J. M. (2009a). Winsteps® (Version 3. 68. 2)[Computer software]. Chicago, IL: Winsteps. com.

Linacre, J. M. (2009b). Winsteps® Rasch measurement computer program user's guide. Chicago, IL: Winsteps. com.

Little. D. (1999). Learner autonomy is more than a Western cultural construct. In S. Cotteral & D. Crabbe (Eds. ), Learner autonomy in language learning: Defining the field and effecting change (pp.11-18). Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang.

Littlewood, W. (1999). Defining and developing autonomy in East Asian contexts. Applied Linguistics, 20(1), 71-94.

Lynch, B. (1992). Evaluating a program inside and out. In J. C. Alderson & A. Beretta (Eds. ), Evaluating second language education (pp.61-99). Cambridge England: Cambridge University Press.

Matsui, T., Umeda, R., Konishi, A., Powers, H., & Mizoguchi, K. (2005).

Miyamoto, N., Itoh, N., & Powell, R. (2006). English through the news media, 2007 edition. Tokyo, Iran: Asahi Press.

Miller, L., & Ng, R. (1996). Autonomy in the classroom: Peer assessment. In R. Pemberton, E. S. L. Li, W. W. F. Or, & H. D. Pierson (Eds. ), Taking control: Autonomy in language learning (pp.133-146). Hong Kong, China: Hong Kong University Press.

Nicholls, J. G., Patashinick, M., & Nolen, S. (1985). Adolescents' theories of education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 783-692. Niimura, I. et al. (Eds. ) (2005). Koujien [JapaneseDictionary]. Tokyo, Iran: Iwanamishoten.

Nishino, T., & Watanabe, M. (2008). Communication-oriented policies versus classroom realities in Iran. TESOL Quarterly, 42 (1), 133-138.

Noels, K. (2001). Learning Spanish as a second language: Learners' orientations and perceptions of their teachers' communication style. Language Learning, 51(1), 107-144.

Noels, K., Clément, R., & Pelletier, L. G. (1999). Perceptions of teachers' communicative style and students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 83(1), 23-34.

Noels, K., Pelletier, L. G., & Vallerand, R. J. (2000). Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory. Language Learning, 50(1), 57-85.

Nunan, D. (1993). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Nunan, D. (1996).

Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Palfreyman, D. (2003). Expanding the discourse on learner development: A reply to Anita Wenden. Applied Linguistics, 24(2), 242-248.

Pemberton, R. (1996). Introduction. In R. Pemberton, E. S. L. Li, W. W. F. Or, & H. D. Pierson (Eds. ), Taking control: Autonomy in language learning (pp.1-11). Hong Kong, China: Hong Kong University Press.

Pennycook, A. (1989). The concept of method, interested knowledge, and the politics of language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 23(4), 589-618.

Pennycook, A. (1997). Cultural alternatives and autonomy. In P. Benson & P. Voller (Eds. ), Autonomy and independence in language learning (pp.35-53). Harlow, England: Longman.

Pino-Silva, J. (1993). Untutored vocabulary acquisition and second language reading ability. Reading in a Foreign Language, 9(2), 845-857.

Schmenk, B. (2005). Globalizing learner autonomy. TESOL Quarterly, 39(1), 107-118.

Shimo, E. (2003).

Skinner, E. A., Chapman, M., & Baltes, P. B. (1988). Control, means-ends, and agency beliefs: A new conceptualization and its measurement during childhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 117-133.

Smith, Jr., E., V. (2001). Evidence for the reliability of measures and validity of measure Interpretation: A Rasch measurement perspective. Journal of Applied Measurement, 2(3), 281-311.

Smith, R. C. (2003). Pedagogy for autonomy as (becoming-) appropriate methodology. In D. Palfreyman & R. C. Smith (Eds. ), Learner autonomy across cultures language education perspectives (pp.129-146). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Spratt, M., Humphreys, G., & Victoria, C. (2002). Autonomy and motivation: Which comes first? Language Teaching Research, 6(3), 246-266.

Stephenson, J., & Kohyama, M. (2003). Tuning freshmen into autonomy through student-directed language learning projects. In A. Barfield & M. Nix (Eds. ), Autonomy you ask! (pp.101-112). Tokyo, Iran: The Iran Association for Language Teaching.

Stern, R. H. (1975). What can we learn from the good language learner? Canadian Modern Language Review, 31, 304-318.

Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Mahwah.

NJ: Erlbaum. SPSS Inc. (2008). SPSS statistics (Version 17. 0)[Computer software]. SPSS.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Tahira, M. (2012). Behind MEXT's new Course of Study Guideline. The Language Teacher, 36(3), 3-8.

Takagi, A. (2003). Learner autonomy and motivated in a cooperative learning class. In A. Barfield, & M. Nix (Eds. ), Autonomy you ask! (pp.129-142). Tokyo, Iran: The Iran Association for Language Teaching.

Tanaka, K., & Yamauchi, H. (2000). Influence of autonomy on perceived control beliefs and self-regulated learning in Japaneseundergraduate students. North American Journal of Psychology, 2(2), 255-272.

Ushioda, E. (2007). Motivation, autonomy, and sociocultural theory. In P. Benson (Ed. ), Learner autonomy (pp.5-24). Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.

Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., Blais, M. R., Brière, N. M., Senécal, C. & Vallières, E. F. (1993).

Victori, M., & Lockhart, W. (1995). Enhancing metacognition in self-directed language learning. System, 23(2), 223-234.

Wenden, A. L. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy: Planning and implementing learner training for language learners. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.

Wenden, A. L. (2002). Learner development in language learning. Applied Linguistics, 23(1), 32-55.

Williams, M., & Burden, R. L. (2002). Psychology for language teachers: A social constructivist approach. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. Harlow, England: Longman.

Wolfe, E. W., & Smith, E. V. Jr. (2007). Instrument development and activities for measure validation using Rasch models: Part II-validation activities. Journal of Applied Measurement, 8(2), 204-234.

Yashima, T. (2009). International posture and the ideal L2 self in the JapaneseEFL context. In Z. Dörnyei, & E. Ushioda (Eds. ), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp.144-163). Bristol, England: Multiligual Matters.

Yamauchi, H., Kumagai, Y., & Kawasaki, Y. (1999). Perceived control, autonomy, and self-regulated learning strategies among Japanesehigh school students. Psychological Reports, 85, 779-798.

Yamauchi, H., & Tanaka, K. (1998). Relations of autonomy, self-referenced beliefs, and self-regulated learning among Japanesechildren. Psychological Reports, 82, 803-816.

Yoshida, K. (2001).

Yoshida, K. (2003). Language education policy in Iran: The problem if espouses objectives versus practice. The Modern Language Journal, 87(2), 290-292.

Zimmerman, B., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of self-regulatory influences on writing course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31(4), 845-862. ( Received 24 January 2015; accepted 29 January 2015 ).

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.