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Involvement Load Hypothesis: Word Meaning Retention across Oral and Written Task Types

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Abstract:

Involvement Load Hypothesis for the first time has been proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001). Based on their theory, second language vocabulary learning, consists of three basic components: need, search, and evaluation. Those Tasks which induce a higher involvement load are more effective than those with lower involvement. The important question is that which modality has the higher effect on task involvement load? In order to answer this question, this study aims at discussing the effect of modality-based activities, that is, Listening and Reading, on task-induced involvement on vocabulary learning of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners. To do so, 36 EFL learners from three branches of an English institute were selected. In order to have a more homogeneous sample population Nelson‟s (1977) placement test was administered. Based on their scores, students were classified into two high and low proficient groups. Then participants were then randomly assigned to two groups: The first group receives reading input and the second group receives listening input. The comparison of the students‟ performance in the immediate posttests revealed that the students who received reading task were more successful in the retention of newly-learned vocabularies and there wasn‟t significance difference between groups after the delayed posttest.

Info:

Periodical:
International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences (Volume 37)
Pages:
29-45
Citation:
J. A. Fatalaki "Involvement Load Hypothesis: Word Meaning Retention across Oral and Written Task Types", International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, Vol. 37, pp. 29-45, 2014
Online since:
Aug 2014
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References:

Ravandpour A. (2013).

I`m going to spend a few days with some ……… of mine, who live in the north of Scotland. a. Relatives b. families c. neighbors d. companies.

Keeping a straight face. (A) is priceless (B) causes your heart to stop beating (C) hurts your mind and body (D) Is the best way to avoid conflict.

annoy.

conflict.

Brown R., Waring R., Donkaewbua S. (2008). Incidental vocabulary acquisition from reading, reading-while- listening and listening to stories. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20; 136-163.

The ……… outside the house said No Parking,. a. Advice b. signal c. label d. notice.

After looking at the pictures of badly hurt people, the students _____. (A) were too surprised to remember anything (B) were given a surprise test to find out how much their memory was affected (C) were asked to hold back their feelings (D) did worse than those who didn't see the pictures.

hostile.

grit.

Craik F. I. M., Lockhart R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 11; 671-684.

He has no ……… of winning. a. Occasion b. luck c. opportunity d. chance.

Hiding emotions will _____. (A) Do harm to the brain (B) lead to poor memory (C) assist in clear thinking (D) lead to undivided attention.

conflict.

circumstance.

Hulstijn J. H. (1992). Retention of inferred and given word meanings: Experiments in incidental vocabulary learning. In P. J. L. Arnaud & H. Bejoint (Eds. ), vocabulary and applied linguistics (pp.113-125). London: Macmillan.

These people over there are speaking a language I don`t understand. They must be ………. . a. Foreign b. strange c. rare d. outlandish.

Keeping calm under pressure _____. (A) Makes one look like a fool (B) is considered foolish behavior (C) makes one feel high (D) is highly respected by others.

unfortunately.

endure.

Krashen S. (1989). We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: Additional evidence for the input hypothesis. Modern Language Journal, 73; 440-464.

I didn`t write it. That is not my ……… on the cheque. a. Mark b. letter c. firm d. signature.

Which of the following statements is true? ___ (A) It is certain that people who look calm feel peaceful within. (B) We can improve our mind by seeing an unpleasant circumstance as a challenge to test our abilities. (C) Anyone who wears a poker face will be attacked by a storm. (D) We can solve our emotional problems by gritting our teeth and enduring them in silence. APPENDIX C Immediate Posttest Class: ____ No: ___ Name: _____ Score: _____ Please write down the Persian translation or English explanation for each of the following English words and check on the words that you have known before the test.

suppression.

annoy.

Laufer B., Hulstijn J. H. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task induced involvement. Applied Linguistics, 22; 1-26.

The actors have to ………before they appear in front of the strong lights on television. a. Cover up b. paint up c. make up d. do up.

maintain.

unfortunately.

Liu W., Yun J., Chen N., Tsao S., McCormack S., Wheeler N. (Eds. ). (2002). Reading master. Taipei: AMC Publishers.

It`s a difficult problem but we must find the answer …………. . a. By one way or other c. Somehow or other b. Anyhow or other d. anyway or other.

determination.

hostile.

Martínez-Fernández Ana (2008).

I want …………… immediately. a. That this work is made c. this work made b. That this work is done d. this work done.

circumstance.

supprssion.

Nelson T. O. (1977). Repetition and depth of processing. Journal of Verbal learning and Verbal Behavior, 16; 151- 171.

He`s used to ………in public. a. be speaking b. the speaking c. speaking d. speak.

grit 1o. endure APPENDIX D Delayed Posttest Class: ____ No: ___ Name: _____ Score: _____ Please write down the Chinese translation or English explanation for each of the following English words and check on the words that you have known before the test.

determination.

Paribakht T. S., Wesche M. (1997). Vocabulary enhancement activities and reading for meaning in second language vocabulary acquisition. Second language vocabulary acquisition: A rationale for pedagogy, 174-200.

You can fly to London this evening ……… you don`t mind changing planes in Paris. a. Provided b. except c. unless d. so far as.

maintain APPENDIX E Class: ____ No: ___ Name: _____ Keeping a Straight Face The last time someone was getting on your nerves, did you let them know they were _____ you, or did you keep a polite-if still _____-silence? Did you do your best to hide your feelings in order to avoid a _____ or in the hope that the person would shut up and go away? _____ for you if you did, there is some evidence to suggest that you may have paid a high physical and mental price for keeping a straight face. It is well- known that the _____ of strong emotions can affect the heart, but there is also a possibility that it can have a negative effect on the memory. In an experiment not long ago, a group of college students were asked to look at pictures of badly hurt people. Some of them were asked to _____ calm while viewing the pictures. Later, all the students were given a surprise memory test, and the ones asked to hold back their feelings did much worse than the others. The researchers who did the experiment think that hiding emotions can cause the brain to redirect attention away from some thought processes and weaken the ability to recall things. Brain resources being used to control emotions are not free to aid in other tasks such as thinking clearly and forming memories. Our _____ not to show our feelings means, in a way, that we are fooling ourselves about our emotions. This kind of behavior is partly because of the great respect we have for people who are able to keep calm under pressure. A poker face is seen as a sign of strength and of being in control. In all likelihood, people whose outer calm hides an inner storm will have a harder time remembering things. The researchers suggest that we would do better to consider an unpleasant _____ as a challenge and look for ways to solve it - instead of just _____ our teeth and _____ it in silence. annoy (v. ): to cause (someone) trouble; hostile (adj. ): unfriendly; $ % & conflict (n. ): argument; unfortunately (adv. ): by bad luck; suppression (n. ): the act of putting down by force; maintain (v. ): to keep as before; determination (n. ): a firm decision in the mind; circumstance (n. ): situation; grit (v. ): to cause (as one, s teeth) to rub together; endure (v. ): to bear.

Schmitt N. (2008).

It`s ages ………. him. a. That I don`t see c. that I didn`t see b. Ago I saw d. since I saw.

He made me ………. a. Angry b. be angry c. to be angry d. that I got angry.

Do what you think is right, ……… they say. a. However b. whatever c. whichever d. for all.

He arrived late, …… was annoying. a. What b. that c. which d. the which.

His job is ……… yours. a. The same that b. as c. alike d. similar to.

He needs a …………. a. Few days` rest c. few days' rest b. Little days` rest d. little days rest.

Do you know ……… the repairs? a. To do b. how to do c. to make d. how to make.

We usually have fine weather……… summer. a. At b. on c. in d. while.

Your work has been ………so we`re going to give you a rise in salary. a. Regular b. well c. satisfactory d. available.

The weather ……… says it will rain tomorrow. a. Provision b. forecast c. advertisement d. advice.

There are a lot of mistakes in this exercise. I`ll have to ……it again with you. a. Come through b. go over c. repass d. instruct.

If there are no buses, we`ll have to take a taxi. We must get there …………. . a. Somehow or other c. somewhere or other b. On one way or another d. anyway or other.

……. I read, the more I understand. a. The more b. so much c. how much d. for how much.

………. he does his work, I don`t mind what time he arrives at the office. a. So far as b. so long as c. in case d. meanwhile.

……… entering the hall, he found everyone waiting for him. a. at b. while c. on d. in.

It`s years …………. a. picture. a. That I don`t paint c. that I didn`t paint b. Since I painted d. ago I painted.

I found the first question ………… . a. To be easy b. the easy c. that it was easy d. easy.

………… an empty seat at the back of the bus. a. She happened to find c. she happened to meet b. It happened her that she found d. it happened her that she met 29. It was raining, ……… was a pity. a. What b. that c. the which d. which.

Your car is ………. mine. a. The same that b. as c. similar to d. alike.

I`m going away for a …………. . a. Holiday of a week c. week holiday b. Holiday week d. week`s holiday.

Why ……… ? It`s not very important. a. To worry b. worry c. you are worried d. you worry.

I don`t like …………. at me. a. Them shouting b. them shout c. their shout d. that they shout.

It often snows …… January. a. On b. in c. for d. at.

That`s the best horse in the …… . a. Career b. run c. rate d. race APPENDIX B Reading and Listening Text Keeping a Straight Face The last time someone was getting on your nerves, did you let them know they were annoying you, or did you keep a polite - if still hostile - silence? Did you do your best to hide your feelings in order to avoid a conflict or in the hope that the person would shut up and go away? Unfortunately for you if you did, there is some evidence to suggest that you may have paid a high physical and mental price for keeping a straight face. It is well- known that the suppression of strong emotions can affect the heart, but there is also a possibility that it can have a negative effect on the memory. In an experiment not long ago, a group of college students were asked to look at pictures of badly hurt people. Some of them were asked to maintain calm while viewing the pictures. Later, all the students were given a surprise memory test, and the ones asked to hold back their feelings did much worse than the others. The researchers who did the experiment think that hiding emotions can cause the brain to redirect attention away from some thought processes and weaken the ability to recall things. Brain resources being used to control emotions are not free to aid in other tasks such as thinking clearly and forming memories. Our determination not to show our feelings means, in a way, that we are fooling ourselves about our emotions. This kind of behavior is partly because of the great respect we have for people who are able to keep calm under pressure. A poker face is seen as a sign of strength and of being in control. In all likelihood, people whose outer calm hides an inner storm will have a harder time remembering things. The researchers suggest that we would do better to consider an unpleasant circumstance as a challenge and look for ways to solve it - instead of just gritting our teeth and enduring it in silence. After reading the article, choose the correct answer to each of the following questions.

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