Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILSHS > ILSHS Volume 30 > From Conflict to Peace Building and Post Conflict...
< Back to Volume

From Conflict to Peace Building and Post Conflict Reconstruction: A Critical Reflection on the Nigeria Niger Delta Amnesty

Full Text PDF


Many decades of exploration and exploitation of petroleum resources have adversely affected the host communities in the Niger Delta. Environmental degradation, loss of means of livelihood, unemployment, poverty, loss of lives and general underdevelopment characterized the region. These formidable odds that threaten the survival of the Niger Delta people triggered off various shades of interminable violent agitations by militants that involved hostage taking and attacks on oil installations. These agitations, no doubt, reduced crude oil production and had adverse effect onthe national economy. This prompted the Nigerian state to intermittently launch attacks on the militants. In spite of the bombardments by the military Joint Task Force, the militants remain resolute in their agitations. Disturbed by the security and economic challenges, the Nigerian state came out with the amnesty initiative. The initiative was designed for the militants to surrender their arms, renounce militancy and also create a favourable atmosphere for the sustainable development of the region. This paper is geared towards examining theoretically, the efficacy of the amnesty initiative in finding solution to the general problem of underdevelopment in the Niger Delta. Situating the discourse within economic integration framework, the paper argues succinctly that the amnesty initiative is intentionally designed to deceitfully disarm the militants and create an enabling environment for the multinational oil companies to operate unhindered while ignoring the burning issues of underdevelopment that triggered the violent agitations in the first place. In order to avert a relapse into militancy, the Nigerian state must develop a credible rehabilitation package for the ex-militants and a holistic framework that can adequately address the problem of underdevelopment in the Niger Delta.


International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences (Volume 30)
S. B. Mohammed et al., "From Conflict to Peace Building and Post Conflict Reconstruction: A Critical Reflection on the Nigeria Niger Delta Amnesty", International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, Vol. 30, pp. 81-95, 2014
Online since:
June 2014

Adejumobi S. (2009). Niger Delta: What Amnesty? The Guardian July 13, p.15.

Afinotan L. A., Ojakorotu, V., African Journal of Political Science and International Relations 3(5) (2009).

Agbo A. (2009). The Gains of the Amnesty Programme. Tell November 2, p.18.

Ake C. (1990). A Political Economy of Africa. New York: Longman Inc.

Akpomuvie O. B., Journal of Sustainable Development 4(2) (2011) 200-210.

Amnesty International. (2009). Nigeria: Petroleum Pollution and Poverty in the Niger Delta. London: AmnestyInternational Publications.

Andrea S. (2002). Amnesty for Crime in International Law and Practice. Hague: Kluwer Law International.

Azaiki S. (2007). Oil Gas and Life in Nigeria. Ibadan: Y-Books Ltd.

Barratt B. M. (1974). The Economics of Imperialism. Harmondsworth: Merlin Press.

Burke-White B. L. (1987). The Two Sides to Amnesty. Port Harcourt: Sunray Publishers.

Chigara B. (2002). Amnesty in International Law: The Legality of under International Law of National Amnesty. Harlow: Longman.

Daniko P. A. (2005). The Imperatives of Peace in Development. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Books.

Eyinla P., Ukpo, J. (2006). Nigeria: The Travesty of Oil and Gas Wealth. Lagos: Catholic Secretariat of Nigeria.

Gallagher J., Robinson R., Economic History Review 2(1) (1953) 21.

Hadden T. (2004). Punishment, Amnesty and Truth: Legal and Political Approaches in Adrian G. (ed), Democracy and Ethnic Conflict: Advancing Peace in Deeply Divided Societies. Palgrave: Macmillan.

Hall G., Wall Street Journal 5(2) (1972) 9.

Henrard K., Journal of International Law 7 (1999) 595-602.

Hobson J. A. (1983). Imperialism: A Study. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Ikelegbe A., Journal of Modern African Studies 39 (1) (2001) 21.

Ikime O. (2006). History, The Historian and the Nation. Ibadan. Heinemann Educational Books.

IMF. (2003). Oil Revenue and Budgeting in Nigeria. Official Bulletin No 6.

Lenin V. I. (1933). Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. London: Little Library.

Madume U. (1992). The Land Use Act. Nigerian Petrobusiness. Vol. 4, p.91.

Murray R. (1973). Productivity, Organic Composition and the Falling Rate of Profit. Conference of Socialist Economist Bulletin.

Niger Delta Citizens Budget Platform (2009). Beyond Amnesty. Port Harcourt: Social Development Integrated Centre.

O'Connor T. (1971). The Meaning of Economic Imperialism in Fann and Hodges (eds) Readings in US Imperialism. Boston: Porter Sargent.

Obi C. (2004). Globalization in Nigeria's Oil Industry: Implications for Local Politics in Agbaje A, et al (eds), Nigeria's Struggle for Democracy and Good Governance. Ibadan: University Press.

Offiong D. (1980). Imperialism and Dependency: Obstacles to African Development. Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers.

Ogege S. O., Nigerian Sociological Review 2(1) (2007) 59.

Ogege S. O., Nigerian Sociological Review 3(2) (2008) 45.

Ogege S. O. (2010). A Study of the Relationship between Multinational Oil Companies and Host Communities in Delta State. An unpublished Ph. D Dissertation in the Department of Sociology, Delta State University, Abraka.

Ojo J. B. (2002). The Niger Delta: Managing Resources and Conflicts. Ibadan: Development Policy Centre.

Omonobi K. (2009). Niger Delta Crisis: Oil Production Dropped to 800 000 barrels Per Day. Vanguard July p.8.

Omoweh D. (2005). Shell Petroleum Development Company, the State and Underdevelopment of Nigeria's Niger Delta: A Study in Environmental Degradation. Eritrea: Africa World Press Inc.

Oyandogha S. (2009). Amnesty for Militants as Political Solution to Niger Delta Crisis. Vanguard June 28 p.9.

Penlikan T. (2003). Marxist Guerilla's Agitation. Sheffield: Greenleaf.

Sachs J. D. (2005). The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities of our Time. New York: Penguin Books.

Saro-Wiwa K. B. (1995). A Month and A Day: A Detention Diary. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

Sawyer S. (2004). Crude Oil Chronicles. Durham: Duke University Press.

Schumpeter J. A. (1955). Sociology of Imperialism. London: Meridian Books.

Schey P. A., Journal of Criminology 9 (1977) 325-333.

Sebba L. (1997). The Niger Delta: Managing Resources and Conflicts. Ibadan: Development Policy Centre.

UNDP. (2006). Niger Delta Human Development Report. Lagos: Perfect Printers.

Vanden K. C. (1998). Amnesty. New York: Kluwer.

Watts M. (2001). Violent Environments. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Zuntie W. K. (2000). Resource Abundance and Environmental Impact in Colombia. New York: Hyperion.

Alaba E. Dare, International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences 3 (2014) 73-79.

Martins Iyoboyi, International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences 16(2) (2014) 202-214. ( Received 05 June 2014; accepted 14 June 2014 ).

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.