Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILNS > ILNS Volume 84 > Water Footprint for Garlic under Irrigation Levels...
< Back to Volume

Water Footprint for Garlic under Irrigation Levels and Agrispon Application

Full Text PDF


Field experiment was conducted in Giza, Egypt, during two growing seasons of 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 on garlic crop, with the objective of investigating the effect of different irrigation levels (60, 80 and 100 % of water requirements and their combination with the foliar spraying applications of agrispon (with 0.5 and 1.0 ml/ liter) on growth and yield. The results indicated that increased irrigation level up to 100% led to increased vegetative characters of garlic and that the lowest growth and productivity was obtained by 60% irrigation level. When considering spray application of agrispon; with 1.0 ml/L increased growth and productivity followed by 0.5 ml/L; while control treatment gave the lowest productivity during the both seasons. Interaction effect between irrigation level and agrispon treatments indicated that 100% irrigation level combined with 1.0 ml/L spray application of agrispon gave the highest garlic productivity followed by 100% irrigation level combined with 0.5 ml/L spray application. The chemical analysis showed that the highest NPK was obtained by 100% irrigation level combined with 1.0 ml/L agrispon application during the both seasons. Regarding water footprint, the highest irrigation water footprint was obtained by 80% irrigation level followed by 60% irrigation level, while the lowest footprint was obtained by 100% irrigation level due to high garlic productivity under 100% irrigation level. The estimate water footprint for garlic was 525 m3/ton. The blue water footprint for garlic was 422 m3/ton about 80% form total water footprint, while gray water percentage about 20% with value of 103 m3/ton.


International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 84)
A.A. Farag et al., "Water Footprint for Garlic under Irrigation Levels and Agrispon Application", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 84, pp. 12-24, 2021
Online since:
December 2021

[1] Abd El-Hady, M. and I. E. Ebtisam. 2016. Maximize Crop Water Productivity of Garlic by Modified Fertilizer Management under Drip Irrigation. International J. of ChemTech Research, 5: 144- 150.

[2] Abdel-Nabi, H. M. A. ; K. K.Dawa ; E. I. El - Gamily. and Y. F. E. Imryed. 2014. Impact of Mineral, Organic and Biofertilization on Growth, Yield and Quality of Cantaloupe J. Plant Production, Mansoura Univ., Vol. 5(11): 1777 – 1794.


[3] Abdel-Naby, H. M. E. ; K. K. Dawa ; E. E. El-Gamily and N. M. Salem.2012. Effect of mineral, organic fertilization and some foliar application treatments on growth and bulb yield of onion. J. Plant Production, Mansoura Univ., Vol. 3 (8): 2265 - 2276.


[4] Ahmed, H.G. (2006). Effect of Irrigation Interval and Weeding Regimes on the Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L.).Journal of Weed Science,19:290-298.

[5] Allen, S. E. (1974). Chemical analysis of ecological materials. Black-Well, Oxford, 565.

[6] Allen, R.G., L.S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements. Irrigation and Drainage Paper nr 56. 300 p. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

[7] Anonymous (2012). Agrispon biologically derived stimulant for crop and soil. Agricultural Sciences, Inc., 3227 Garden Brook, Dallas, Texas 75234 USA

[8] Bagali, A.N.; H.B. Patil; M.B. Guled and R.V. Patil (2012). Effect of scheduling of drip irrigation on growth, yield and water use efficiency of onion (Allium cepa L.). Karnataka J. Agric. Sci.,25:116-119.

[9] Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G. and Gautam, R. (2006): The water footprint of cotton consumption: an assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries, Ecological Economics, 60(1):186-203.


[10] Chapagain, A. K.; Orr, S., (2009): An improved water footprint methodology linking global consumption to local water resources: A case of Spanish tomatoes. Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2) 12191228.


[11] Chapman H. D. and F. Pratt, 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soils, Plants and Water.Univ. of Calif., 35: 6 - 7.

[12] Chapman, H. D. and P. F. Pratt, 1982. Methods of Plant Analysis, I. Methods of Anaylsis for Soil, Plant and Water. Chapman Publishers, Riverside, California, USA.

[13] El-Dakroury, M. A. 2008. Influence of different irrigation systems and irrigation treatments on productivity and fruit quality of some bean varieties M. Sc. Thesis, Fac. of Agri., Ain Shams University.

[14] Elegba, M.S. and R.I. Rennie (1984). Agrispon: microbiological and elemental analysis and evaluation of its effect on the growth of wheat, barley, field beans and corn. Can. J. Soil Sci., 64: 621-629.


[15] Ezzo M.I.; A.A. Glala, H.A. Habib, A.A. Helaly (2010). Response of sweet pepper grown in sandy and clay soil Lysimeters to water regimes. Amer-Euras J Agric& Environ Sci., 8:18-26.

[16] FAO, (1980). Soil and plant analysis. Soils Bull. 38, 2–250 (FAO, Rome).

[17] Gee G.W. and Bauder J.W. (1986) Particle-size analysis. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods., Klute A. Ed. Chap. 15. American Society of Agronomy. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., 383-411.

[18] Gyanendra, P. M. S., M. Imtiyaz and M.D. Dennis. 2016. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) yield as influenced by different levels of irrigation water by drip irrigation system. International journal of innovation in engineering research & management V: 03 Issue: 01:2348-4918.

[19] Karaye, A.K. and A.I. Yakubu (2007). Checklist of Weeds in Irrigated Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and Onion (Allium cepa L.) in Sokoto River Valley. Journal of Weed Science, 20 : 53-60.

[20] Karishma S. , M.S. Arya, U.R. Reshma1 , S.J. Anaswara1 and Syama S. Thampi. 2019. Impact of Plant Growth Regulators on Fruit Production. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci, 8(2): 800-814.


[21] Mandefro, C. and S. Quraishi. 2015. Effect of deficit irrigation on yield and water productivity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) under drip irrigation and mulching at wolaitasoddo, Ethiopia. International Journal of Life Sciences, 4: 232-239.


[22] Mekonnen, M. M. and Hoekstra, A.Y., (2011b): National Water Footprint Accounts: The Green, Blue and Grey Water Footprint of Production and Consumption. Volume 2: Appendices. Delft, The Netherlands, UNESCO-IHE. Value of water, Research Report Series No. 50.


[23] Mekonnen, M.M. and Hoekstra, A.Y., (2011a). The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 15, 1577–1600.


[24] Moustafa, M. M. I.1; M. A. Wally1; K. M. Refaie, and A. H. M. Abd ELWahed. 2017. Effect of different irrigation levels and salicylic acid applications on growth,yield and quality of garlic (Allium Sativum, L.). J. Biol. Chem. Environ. Sci.12(1): 301-323.

[25] Rakesh K. and S.K. Agarwal.2014. Yield and yield attributes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as influenced by agrispon and fertonic at varying level of fertility. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 4 (4): 166-170.

[26] Watanabe F. S. and S. R. Olsen, (1965). Test of an ascorbic acid method for determining phosphorus in water and Na HCO3 extracts from soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 29: 677-678.


[27] Waller, R. A. and Duncan D. B. 1969. A bayes rule for the symmetric multiple comparison problem, J. Am. Stat. Assoc 64, 1484-1504.

[28] Westerman, R. L. (1990). Soil testing and plant analysis. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Madison, WI, USA.pp:126.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.