Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILNS > ILNS Volume 78 > Feeding Ecology and Reproductive Biology of some...
< Back to Volume

Feeding Ecology and Reproductive Biology of some Economically Important Fish Species in the Tono Reservoir, Ghana

Full Text PDF


The study of feeding ecology and reproductive biology ensures that the right management measures are applied for best output of fish stocks. Selection of good fish species for culture is also made possible through feeding and reproductive studies. Ghana over-relies on the culture of Nile tilapia and African catfish because there is no reliable scientific information on potential fish species that can be included for fish farming. The current study sought to investigate food habits and reproductive characteristics of economically important fish species in the Tono Reservoir of Northern Ghana. Monthly sampling was carried out from January, 2015 to December, 2016 (24 months). Specimens were obtained using cast net and gillnets of varying mesh sizes. Specimens were immediately transported to the laboratory in a chilled iced chest of temperature 4 for morphometric measurements and microscopic analysis of gut content and gonads. Thirty-three (33) individual food items were identified from all the fish species. Phytoplankton was the most important diet (Index of Relative Importance, IRI = 1923) whereas zooplankton was the least important diet (IRI = 35) out of the five major categories of food items identified from all the fish species. The major peaks of gonadosomatic index (GSI) of females were noted in February – March and June – July. Over 80 % variation of fecundity was explained by the predictors (standard length, fish weight and gonad weight) for Clarias gariepinus and Auchenoglanis occidentalis. All the fish species were classified as omnivores and they spawned more than once in a year making all of them good candidates for aquaculture. Management measures should focus on regulating agricultural activities close to the reservoir and fishing activities in the reservoir for sustainable fish production and exploitation.


International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 78)
D. N. Akongyuure, "Feeding Ecology and Reproductive Biology of some Economically Important Fish Species in the Tono Reservoir, Ghana", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 78, pp. 23-33, 2020
Online since:
April 2020

[1] R. Froese, M.L.D. Palomares, D. Pauly, Estimation of life-history key facts. 12 June, (2017).

[2] J.L.C Novaes, E.D. Carvalho, Reproduction, food dynamics and exploitation level of Oreochromis niloticus (perciformes: cichlidae) from artisanal fisheries in Barra Bonita reservoir, Brazil. Revista de Biologia Tropical. 60(2) (2012) 721–734.


[3] O. Soyinka, Aspects of the biology and culture trials of cichlids from Lagos lagoon, Journal of Scientific Research and Development. 14(1) (2014).

[4] FAO. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2016. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy. (2016).

[5] H. S. Al-Masroori, S. Bose, Fisheries sustainability and sustainable development, Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 6 (2011) 1–21.

[6] M. King, Fisheries biology, assessment and management. Fishing News Books, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, (1995).

[7] S.D. Gerking, Feeding ecology of fish. Academic Press, United Kingdom, (1994).

[8] G. Kraus, J. Tomkiewicz, F.W. Koster. Egg production of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) in relation to variable sex ratio, maturity and fecundity, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 59 (2002) 1908–(1920).


[9] E.H. Alhassan, M. Ansu-Darko, Food and Feeding habits of a potential aquaculture candidate, the black Nile catfish, Bagrus Bajad in the Golinga Reservoir, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 5(5) (2011) 354–359.

[10] E.H. Alhassan, A. Commey, T.B. Bayorbor, An Investigation into the food and feeding habits of Sarotherodon galilaeus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in a shallow tropical reservoir, Research Journal of Fisheries and Hydrobiology. 6(2) (2011) 74–77.

[11] E.D. Abarike, A. Ampofo-Yeboah, Reproductive potential of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1757) in the Golinga reservoir in Ghana, International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 4(5) (2016) 279–283.

[12] K.K. Mireku, J. Blay, K. Yankson, Reproductive biology of Blackchin tilapia, Sarotherodon melanotheron (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Brimsu Reservoir, Cape Coast, Ghana, International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture. 8(4) (2016) 42–54.


[13] C.B. García, C.C. Contreras, Trophic levels of fish species of commercial importance in the Colombian Caribbean, Revista de Biologia Tropical. 59(3) (2011) 1195–203.


[14] S.K. Agodzo, E. Obuobie, C.A. Braimah, The effects of irrigation dams on water supply in Ghana. IOSR Journal of Engineering. 4(5) (2014) 48–53.


[15] S. Adams et al., Water requirements of some selected crops in Tono irrigation area, Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Science. 4 (2014) 246–257.

[16] D.N. Akongyuure et al., Tono Reservoir fishery contribution to poverty reduction among fishers in northern Ghana, African Journal of Aquatic Science. 42(2) (2017) 143–154.


[17] Ghana Statistical Service. Population and housing census. District Analytical Report, Accra, Ghana, (2014).

[18] R.J. Shiel. A guide to identification of rotifers, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods from Australian waters. Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology. Albury, Australia, (1995).

[19] E.G. Bellinger, D.C. Sigee, Freshwater algae: identification, enumeration and use as bio-indicators (2nd edn.), Wiley-Blackwell, (2015).

[20] T.B. Bagenal, E. Braum, Eggs and early life history, in: W.E. Ricker, (Ed.). Methods for assessment of fish production in fresh waters. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, (1968).

[21] T.B. Bagenal, Fecundity. in: B.A. Shinkafi, J.K. Ipinjolu, Gonadosomatic index, fecundity and egg size of Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Cuvier and Valenciennes) in River Rima, North-Western Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 20(3) (1978) 217–224.


[22] E.J. Hyslop, Stomach contents analysis: A review of methods and their application, Journal of Fish Biology. 17 (1980) 411–429.

[23] A.A. Ugwumba, O.A Ugwumba, Food and feeding ecology of fishes in Nigeria, Crystal Publishers, Lagos, Nigeria, (2007).

[24] M.A. Clark, The food and feeding of seven fish species from the Campbell Plateau, New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 19 (3) (1985) 339–363.


[25] H. Murua et al., Procedures to estimate fecundity of marine fish species in relation to their reproductive strategy, Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science. 33 (2003) 33–54.


[26] E.A. Khallaf, M.M.N. Authman, Some biological aspects of the Nile mormyrid fish (Mormyrus kannume, Forsskal, 1775), from Bahr Shebeen Nilotic Canal, Egypt, World Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences. 2 (2010) 357–375.


[27] L.A. Agbabiaka, Food and feeding habits of Tilapia zillii (Pisces: Cichlidae) in river Otamiri South-Eastern Nigeria. Bioscience Discovery. 3(2) (2012) 146-148.

[28] Shalloof KA, Khalifa N, Stomach contents and feeding habits of Oreochromis niloticus (L.) from Abu-Zabal Lakes, Egypt, World Applied Sciences Journal. 6(1) (2009) 1–5.

[29] H.R. Dankwa, E.K. Abban, G.G. Teugels, Freshwater fishes of Ghana: identification, distribution, ecological and economic status. Annales Science Zoologiques. 283 (1999) 53.

[30] O.A. Ikongbeh, F.G. Ogbe, S.G. Solomon, Food and feeding habits of Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Valenciennes, 1775) from Lake Akata, Benue State, Nigeria. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 9(4) (2014) 229–236.


[31] S. Amisah, N.W. Agbo, An investigation into the food and feeding ecology of a potential aquaculture candidate, Sarotherodon galilaeus multifasciatus in a meteoritic crater lake in Ghana, Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 12(3) (2008) 15–18.


[32] J.A. Oso et al., Fecundity of two dominant fish species in Ado reservoir, Southwest Nigeria. Albanian Journal Agricultural Science. 12(4) (2013) 603–607.

[33] J.L. Gómez-Márquez, Reproductive aspects of Oreochromis niloticus (perciformes) in Coatetelco Lake, Morelos Mexico, Revista de Biologia Tropical. 51 (2003) 221–228.

[34] K. Kwarfo-Apegyah, P.K. Ofori-Danson, Spawning and recruitment patterns of major fish species in Bontanga Reservoir, Ghana, West Africa, Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management. 15 (2010) 3–14.


[35] S. Doha, M.A. Hye, Fecundity of Padma River Hilsa (H. ilisha), Pakistan Journal of Science. 22 (1970) 176–184.

[36] K.F. Lagler, J.F.Z Bardach, R.R. Miller, Ichthyology, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, London, Sydney, (1967).

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.