Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILNS > ILNS Volume 73 > Investigation of the Biodynamic Commands Use...
< Back to Volume

Investigation of the Biodynamic Commands Use Effect on Mucilage Content and Germination Behavior in Three Ecotypes of Basil (Ocimum Sp.)

Full Text PDF


One of the most popular and useable of Aromatic plants are kinds of Basilica (Ocimum sp., Lamiaceae). This genius has different characteristics in behavior germination. Biodynamic agriculture is a new science in the research and especially, the position of stars and planet relative to each other, position of moon around the earth and seasonal change and Solar and lunar eclipses. We must to demonstrative of this theory. In this experiment, we want to record the effect of based on two calendars (biodynamic and Astronomic) on 3 ecotype of Basilica seed germination. The based on this experiment randomized block design with 3 replications. We use 50 seeds in Falcon tube (value=15ml) and record the weight and value of seed in tube. Then added 5ml of water in tube and shacked after moisturized and control and record of Mucilage value and another behavior of seed germination in lab condition. Results showed that different position of some planets such as moon and Mars and Jupiter had the highest effect, positive and significant effect on mucilage percent (p>95%), germination speed and length of root. Therefore, we could be express the lunar position had the highest effect on root length of local type and the lowest effect on purple basil. Mucilage percentage of seed coat in green basil had the highest content relative to another ecotype and this content was significant (p>95%). Then, the best suggest for produce of mucilage from the basil seeds, the best time is the first quadrature of moon.


International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 73)
M. Sabet Teimouri, "Investigation of the Biodynamic Commands Use Effect on Mucilage Content and Germination Behavior in Three Ecotypes of Basil (Ocimum Sp.)", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 73, pp. 36-46, 2019
Online since:
January 2019

[1] J.L. Harper, R.A. Benton, The Behaviour of Seeds in Soil: II. The Germination of Seeds on the Surface of a Water Supplying Substrate, Journal of Ecology. 54(1) (1966) 151–166.


[2] JA.Young, RA. Evans, Mucilaginous seed coats, Weed Sci. Soc. Am. 21 (1973) 52–54.

[3] S. Sadeghi, A. Rahnavard, Z.Y. Ashrafi, The effect of plant-density and sowing-date on yield of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in Iran, Journal of Agricultural Technology. 5(2) (2009) 413–422.

[4] J. Javanmardi et al., Chemical characterization of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) found in local accessions and used in traditional medicines in Iran, J. Agric. Food Chem. 50(21) (2002) 5878–5883.


[5] S. Ying et al., Role of mucilage in seed dispersal and germination of the annual ephemeral Alyssum minus (Brassicaceae), Australian Journal of Botany. 60(5) (2012) 439–449.


[6] N.C. Garwood, The role of mucilage in the germination of cuipo, cavanillesia platanifolia (H. & B.) H. B. K. (bombacaceae), a tropical tree, American Journal of Botany. 72 (1985) 1095–1105.


[7] Zh. Dongfang, Seed Germination performance and mucilage production of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Master science thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, (2012).

[8] T.L. Western, The sticky tale of seed coat mucilages: production, genetics, and role in seed germination and dispersal. Seed Science Research. 22 (2012) 1–25.


[9] S.M. Razavi et al., Optimisation study of gum extraction from basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum L.), International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 44 (2009) 1755–1762.

[10] A.W. Blake et al., Understanding the biological rationale for the diversity of cellulose-directed carbohydrate-binding molecules in prokaryotic enzymes, Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (2006) 29321–29329.


[11] T.L. Western, The sticky tale of seed coat mucilages: production, genetics, and role in seed germination and dispersal, Seed Science Research. 22 (2012) 1–25.


[12] S.M.A. Razavi et al., Optimisation study of gum extraction from basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum L.), International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 44 (2009) 1755–1762.

[13] M.A. Dorry, M. Alamdar, Effect of seed rate and planting date on seed mucilage amount of Palntago ovata in dry farming condition, Pazhouhesh and Sazandegi. 20 (2007).

[14] D. Huang et al., Differentiation of the seed coat and composition of the mucilage of Lepidium perfoliatum L.: a desert annual with typical myxospermy, Acta Biochim Biophys Sin. 47(10) (2015) 775–787.


[15] B. Thakore, D. Anderle, Biodynamic calendar of India, Bio-Dynamic Association of India, (2018).

[16] A. Hosseini, M. Nojoomi, Astronomical calendar of Iran, (2015).

[17] A. Hosseini, M. Nojoomi, Astronomical calendar of Iran, (2016).

[18] H. Jaanghorbani, Astronomical calendar of Iran, (2018).

[19] R. Pomeroy, Networks [Online]. Available: https://www.

[20] R. Steiner, Biodynamic Agriculture, (1924).

[21] S. Nazir, I.A. Wani, F.A. Masoodi, Extraction optimization of mucilage from Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) seeds using response surface methodology, Journal of Advanced Research. 8(3) (2017) 235-244.


[22] K.Y. Song et al., Effects of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Seed mucilage substituted for fat source in sponge cake: physicochemical, structural, and retrogradation properties, Italian Journal of Food Science. 29(4) (2017).

[23] M. Saeedi et al., Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L. seed mucilage as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of propranolol HCl, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research. 1(1) (2015) 18–25.

[24] J.E. Simon et al., Basil: A source of aroma compounds and a popular culinary and ornamental herb, in: J. Janick (Ed.), Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses, 1999, p.499–505.

[25] M. Engelbrecht, E. Bochet, P. García-Fayos, Mucilage secretion: an adaptive mechanism to reduce seed removal by soil erosion?, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 111 (2014) 241–251.


[26] D. Barrios et al., The role of mucilage in the germination of Leptocereus scopulophilus (Cactaceae) seeds from Pan de Matanzas, Cuba, Botany. 93(4) (2015) 251–255.


[27] X. Yang et al., More than just a coating: Ecological importance, taxonomic occurrence and phylogenetic relationships of seed coat mucilage, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 14 (2012) 434–442.


[28] S. Mijani et al., Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses of Hyssop, Sweet Basil and Oregano to Temperature Levels Notulae Scientia Biologicae. 5(4) (2013) 462–467.


[29] S.H. Hosseini-Parvar et al., Steady shear flow behavior of gum extracted from Ocimum basilicum L. seed: Effect of concentration and temperature, Journal of Food Engineering. 101 (2010) 236–243.


[30] B. Kumar, Prediction of germination potential in seeds of Indian basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Journal of Crop Improvement. 26 (2012) 532–539.


[31] R. Steiner, Geisteswissenschaftliche Grundlagen zum Gedeihen der Landwirtschaft, Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach, (1924).

[32] M. Sabet Teimouri, Biodinamic Agriculture (in persian), Behta Pazhouhesh press, 2015, p.41–58.

[33] M.Thun, Result from the biodynamic swing and planting calendar, Floris books, (2003).

[34] S. Dudaš et al., Effects of biodynamic production on growth and essential oil content in basil, Acta Bot. Croat. 75(2) (2016) 260–265.


[35] Biodynamic products, ARBICO Organics, 2018. [Online] Available:

[36] R. Tayler, C. Gomez, Biodynamic Seed Regeneration: Enabling the Flow of Life Forces in Nature, (online),, (2015).

[37] P.V. Kadam et al., Evaluation of Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum basillicum Mucilage- As a Pharmaceutical Excipient, Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 4(4) (2012) 1950–(1955).

[38] A. Lotfi et al., The effect of deficit irrigation and manure on quantity and quality traits of plantago ovata Forssk. in Sistan region, Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 24(4) (2009) 506–518.

[39] R. Tiwari, Studies on genetic variability in Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.), MS.C. thesis, The Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi, (2003).

[40] P.K. Sharma, A.K. Koul, Musilage in seed of Plantago ovata and its wild allies, J. Ethnopharmacology. 17 (1986) 289–295.


[41] M. Karan, A. Gurpreet, S. Inderbir, Ocimum Sanctum seeds, a natural superdisintegrant: formulation and evaluation of fast melt tablets of nimesulide, Polim. Med. 42(1) (2012) 49–59.

[42] T. Hejrani et al., Impact of the Basil and Balangu gums on physicochemical properties of part baked frozen Barbari bread, Information Processing in Agriculture. Doi:

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.