Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILNS > Volume 58 > Control of Green Rot Fungus of Arachis hypogaea L....
< Back to Volume

Control of Green Rot Fungus of Arachis hypogaea L. in Orage Using Plant Extracts

Full Text PDF


The antifungal activity of the ethanolic and aqueous fruit extracts of Zingiber officinale, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Garcinia kola and Cola nitida on the green rot fungus (Penicillium sp.) isolated from infected groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds in storage were investigated in vitro. Various concentrations of the aqueous and ethanolic fruit extract ranging from 5g/100ml, 10g/100ml, and 15g/100ml were separately added to Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media. The fungus was inoculated into the media and incubated for seven days. Results of the in vitro studies showed that the ethanolic extracts had a significant inhibitory effect (p<0.05) on the radial growth of Penicillium sp. at all levels of concentration tested. Complete inhibition of the fungus was at 15g/100ml of ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola and Tetrapleura tetraptera. The aqueous extracts showed less inhibitory effect as compared to the ethanolic extracts. The effective inhibition of ethanolic extracts as compared to the aqueous extracts may be attributed to the efficiency of the extraction solvent on the phytochemical content of the plant extracts. The application of botanical extracts for disease management could be less expensive, easily available, non-polluting and eco-friendly. The ethanolic fruit extracts of Garcinia kola and Tetrapleura tetraptera at the higher concentrations can be produced in large quantities and used as spray in controlling the green rot fungus of Arachis hypogaea in storage.


International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 58)
E. J. Umana et al., "Control of Green Rot Fungus of Arachis hypogaea L. in Orage Using Plant Extracts", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 58, pp. 77-84, 2016
Online since:
Sep 2016

[1] A.C. Dutta, Botany for degree students, fourth ed., Oxford University Press, India, (2004).

[2] L. Doumbouya, L. Samakada, A new method for the protection of stored groundnut in Africa, Int. Arac. Nw. Lett. 18 (1998) 43-44.

[3] R. Schilling, L'arachide histoire et perspectives, Agro. Museu. (2003) 234-443.

[4] T. Baughman et al., Texas peanut production guide: Alternative field crops manual, J. New. Cro. Cent. 2 (2008) 77-86.

[5] G. Lewis et al., Legumes and grains, Wor. Roy. Bot. Gard. (2005) 123-456.

[6] S. Hirano, T. Shima, T. Shimada, Proportion of aflatoxin B1 contaminated kernels and its concentration in imported peanut samples, Shok. Eise. Zassh. 42(4) (2001) 237–242.

DOI: 10.3358/shokueishi.42.237

[7] A. M. Torres et al., Review on pre-and post-harvest management of peanuts to minimize aflatoxin contamination, Fd. Res. Internat. 62 (2014) 11-19.

DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.02.023

[8] CAC, Code of Practice for the prevention and reduction of aflatoxin contamination in peanuts, Cod. Alimen. Commiss. 55 (2004).

[9] C.K. Mutegi et al., Factors associated with thess incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts in the Busia and Homa bay districts of western Kenya, Plt. Pathol. 61 (2012) 1143-1153.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02597.x

[10] E. F. Dayo, S. F. Olajide, The nutritional and mycoflora changes during storage of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), Int. J. Agro. Agric. Res. 2 (2012) 15-22.

[11] A.K. Onifade, Y.A. Agboola, Effect of fungal infection on proximate nutrient composition of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn. ) fruit, Fd. Agric. Environ. 1(2003) 141-142.

[12] S. Kagale et al., Antimicrobial activity and induction of systemic resistance in rice by leaf extracts of Datura metel against Rhizoctonia solani and Xanthomonas oryzae, pv. Oryzae, Phys. Mol. Plt Pathol. 65 (2004) 91-100.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pmpp.2004.11.008

[13] R. Gupta, M. Khokhar, R. Lai, Management of black mould of onions, J. Plt. Pathol. Microbiol. 3 (2012) 3-5.

[14] R. Okigbo, P. Ramesh, C. Achusi, Post-harvest deterioration of cassava and its control using extracts of Azadirachta indica and Aframomum melegueta, E-J. Chem. 6 (2009) 1274-1280.

DOI: 10.1155/2009/680519

[15] D.N. Enyiukwu, A.N. Awurum, Effects of phytochemicals from Carica papaya roots and seeds and Piper guineense seeds on the germination of spores of Colletotrichum destructivum, Cont. J. Biol. Sci. 4 (2013) 55-59.

[16] E.U. Opara, F.T. Obana, Performance of some plant extracts and pesticides in the control of bacterial spot diseases of solanum, Med. Agric. J. 5 (2010) 45-49.

DOI: 10.3923/aj.2010.45.49

[17] A.N. Awurum, D.E. Okwu, P.O. Onyekoro, In vitro and in vivo control of Colletotrichum destructivum in cowpea using some plant extracts, J. Sci. Technol. 5 (2005) 52-57.

[18] H.L. Barnett, B.B. Hunter, Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi fourth ed, APS Press, St Paul Minnesota, (1998).

[19] E.J. Umana et al., Gmelina arborea Roxb: associated mycoflora and diseases in Cross River State, Nigeria, Glob. J. Sci. Front. Res. 15 (2015) 1-11.

[20] R.G. Ranga, R.V. Rameshwa, S.N. Nigam, Post-harvest insect pests of groundnut and their management in International crops research institute for the semi-arid tropics, Inf. Bull. 84 (2010) 18-20.

[21] A.B. Zakaria, S.S. Mamdough, K.K. Tarek, Mycoflora associated with some stored seeds and their control by aqueous extracts from medicinal plants, Lf. Sci. Leafl. 57 (2014) 49-62.

[22] S. Bankole, A. Adebanjo, Mycotoxins in food in West Africa: Current situation and possibilities of controlling it, Afric. J. Biotechnol. 2 (2003) 254–263.

DOI: 10.5897/ajb2003.000-1053

[23] M. Seema et al., In vitro studies of some plant extract against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn infecting tobacco in Karnataka Light Soil, Karnataka, India, J. Agric. Technol. 7(2011) 1321-1329.

[24] E.M. Ilondu, Evaluation of some aqueous plant extracts used in the control of paw-paw fruit (Carica papaya L. ) rot fungi, J. Appl. Biol. Sci. 37 (2011) 2419-2424.

[25] M.J. Abada, M.T. Ansuategui, P.E. Bermejo, Active antifungal substances from natural sources, Arkiv. J. 7 (2007) 116-145.

[26] N.V. Chiejina, J.A. Ukeh, Efficacy of Aframomum melegueta and Zingiber officinale extracts on fungal pathogens of tomato fruit, IOSR J. Pharm. Biol. Sci. 6 (2013) 13-16.

DOI: 10.9790/3008-0461316

[27] N.M. Salehan, S.S. Meon, I.S. Ismail, Antifungal activity of Cosmos caudatus extracts against seven economically important plant pathogens, Int. J. Agric. Biol. 15 (2013) 864-870.

Show More Hide