Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILNS > ILNS Volume 54 > Remediation of Mild Crude Oil Polluted Fresh Water...
< Back to Volume

Remediation of Mild Crude Oil Polluted Fresh Water Wet Land with Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer

Full Text PDF


Wetland pollution due to inputs from crude oil is one of the most prevalent environmental problems facing the aquatic ecosystem in the world. The present study was intended to investigate the effectiveness of combination of cow lumen and NPK fertilizer in stimulating the degradation of crude oil polluted fresh water wet land. Soil samples were collected from unpolluted plots, crude oil polluted plots and crude oil polluted plots that were treated with the remediating agents. After fifteen days and sixty days of remediation, the soil samples were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (E.C), phosphate, PO3-4, phosphorous, P, % organic carbon, % total nitrogen N, carbon/nitrogen ratio and total petroleum hydrocarbon, TPH. The result indicates that combination of the inorganic and organic manure was more efficient in stimulating the degradation of the crude oil than the use of either the cow lumen or NPK fertilizer alone. The physiochemical properties of the soil in all the treated plots were observed to have been improved when compared with that of the untreated plots.


International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 54)
F. C. Ibe et al., "Remediation of Mild Crude Oil Polluted Fresh Water Wet Land with Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 54, pp. 75-84, 2016
Online since:
May 2016

[1] G. U. Chibuike and S. C. Obiora, Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-polluted soils for improved crop performance, International Journal of Environmental Sciences 4 (5) (2014) 840 – 858.

[2] M. Chorom, H.S. Sharifi and H. Metamede Bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil by application of fertilizers Iran J. Enviro. Health. Sci Eng, 7(4) (2010) 319-326.

[3] M.D. Pala, D. DeCarvalho, J.C. Pinto and G.L. Sant Anna Jr A suitable model to describe bioremediation of a petroleum-contaminated soil. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation Journal 58(6) (2006) 254-260.

[4] P. J Alvarez and T.M. Vogel, Substrate interactions of bentzene, toluene, and para-xylene during microbial degradation by pure cultures and mixed culture aquifer slurries; applied and Enviro. Microbial, 57(10) (1991) 2981-2985.

[5] F.B. G Tanee and L. A. Akonye, Phytoremediation potential of vigna unquiculation in a Crude oil polluted tropical soil of the Niger-Delta. Global Journal of pure and Applied Sciences 15 (2009) 1-40.

[6] J. G. Xu and B. L. Johnson, Nitrogen dynamics in soils with different hydrocarbon content planted to baudey and filed Rea, Canadian Journal of soil Science 77 (1997) 453-458.

[7] L. A. Akonye and I.O. Onwudiwe, Effects of certain soil amendment agents on lead (pb) uptake by plants grown on oil polluted soil, Scientia Africana 6 (2007) 85-93.

[8] F.B. G Tanee and D.I. Anyanwu, Comparative studies of the growth and yield of two Cassava lines TMS 30572 and 3055557 in a crude oil polluted habitat. Scientia Africana 6 (2007) 81-84.

[9] G. C Okpokwasili and L. O Odokuma, Effect of salinity on Biodegradation of oil spills dispersants. Waste management 10 (1990) 141-146.

[10] W. J. Mitsch and J. G. Giosselink, wetlands, John. Wiley & Sons, Inc New York, (2006).

[11] X. Zhu, A.D. Venosa, M.T. Suidam and K. Lee, Guidelines for the Bioremediation of marine shorelines freshwater wetlands, Report nucle a contract with office of Research and Development, U. S Environmental Protection Agency, (2001).

[12] L.A. Boorman, Salt marshes-present functioning and future charge, Mangrove and salt Mershes 3 (1999) 227-241.

[13] J. M. Baker, J.A. Bayley, S. E. Howells, J. Oldham and M. Wilson, oil in wetland. In B. Dicks (ed): ecological impacts of the oil industry, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, (1989) pp.37-59.

[14] M. Fingas, The basics of oil spill clean up. Lewis publishers, Boca Raton FL, (2001). p.203.

[15] National Academy of Science oil in the Sea Inputs, fates and Effects, National Academy Press, Washington DC, (1985).

[16] S.F. Pezeshki, M.W. Hester, Q. Lin, and J. A. Nyman, The effects of oil spill and clean-up on dominant US Gulf Coast March Macriophtes: a review Environmental Pollution 108 (2000) 129-139.

[17] C.J. Anderson, C. Artis and D. Pendergrass, Prospects for wetland recover in the Northern Gulf of Mexico Environment Law Institute, Washington, D.C. http: /www. eli. org, 11-2010, 40ELR (2010) pp.11090-11096.

[18] J.A. Purandare, T. Huang, M.T. Suidan and B. Johnston, Microcosm of study of Bioremediation of oil Contaminated freshwater wetlands. Proceeding of 1999 international oil spill conference No. 219. American Petroleum Institute Washington D.C. (1999).

[19] A. Basserres and P. Eyraud, Enhancing of spilled oil biodegradation of nutrients of natural origin. Proceedings of the 1993 oil Spill Conference, A.P. I Washington D.C. (1993), pp.495-507.

[20] K. Lee and S. Torembley, Bioremediation Application of Slow-release fertilizers on low energy showlines, proceedings of the 1993 oil spill Conference A.P.I. Washington D.C. (1993), pp.449-454.

[21] P. Scherrer and G. Mille, Bioregradation of Crude Oil in experimentally polluted dayey and Snady Mangrove soils. Oil and chemical pollution 6 (1990) 163-176.

[22] I.A. Mendelssohn, Q. In, K. Debusschure, C.B. Henry, E.B. Overton, B.J. Portier, M.W. Walsh, S. Penland and N.N. Kabalais The development of bioremediation for spill clean up in coastal wetlands product impacts and bioremediation potential. Proceedings of the 1995 oil spill conference. A.P.I. Washington D.C. (1995).

[23] M. Spalding, F. Blasco and C. Field, World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan (1997) p.178.

[24] C. N. P. Okonkwo, L. Kumar and S. Taylor, The Niger Delta wetland ecosystem: What threatens it and why should we protect it? AJEST Vol. 9(5) (2015) 451- 463.

[25] A. Ikelegbe The economy of conflict in the oil rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Afr Asian Stud. 5 (2006) 23 - 56.

[26] S.G. Umoh, The promise of wetland farming; evidence from Nigeria, Agric J. 3 (2008)107 - 112.

[27] N. Uluocha and I. Okeke, Implications of wetlands degradation for water resources management: lessons from Nigeria, Geo.J. 61(2004) 151 -158.

[28] K.S.A. Ebeku, Biodiversity conservation in Nigeria: an appraisal of the legal regime in relation to the Niger Delta area of the country, J Environ Law. 16 (2004) 361–375.

[29] F.C. Onuoha, Oil pipeline sabotage in Nigeria: Dimensions, actors and implications for National Security L/C. African Security Review, 17(3) (2008).

[30] B. Anifowose, Assessing the Impact of Oil and Gas Transport on Nigeria's Environment. U21 Postgraduate Research Conference Proceedings 1, University of Birmingham UK (2008).

[31] B. O. Oshwofasa, D. E. Anuta and J. O. Aiyedogbon, Environmental degradation and oil industry activities in the Niger-Delta region African Journal of Scientific Research 9(1) (2012) 444 – 460.

[32] A. A. Kadafa, Environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Environment & Earth Sciences, GJSFR-H, 12(3) Version 1. 0 (2012) 18 – 28.

[33] Federal Ministry of Environment Abuja, Nigerian Conservation Foundation Lagos, WWF UK and CEESP-IUCN Commission on Environmental, Economic, and Social Policy, Niger Delta Resource Damage Assessment and Restoration Project, May 31, (2006).

[34] A. A. Kadafa, Oil exploration and spillage in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, Civil and Environmental Research 2(3) (2012) 38 – 51.

[35] P.C. Njoku, E.N. Ejike and C.E. Ogukwe, Analytical methods (for Tertiary Institutions). Gods own publication Centre, Owerri. (2006).

[36] M.J. Ayotamuno, R.B. Kogbara, S.O.T. Ogari and S.D. Robert, Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted agricultural soil at Port Harcourt, Nigeria, Applied energy 83(II) (2006) 1249-1257.

[37] A. Walkey and I. A Black, Determination of organic carbon in soil. Soil Sci. 37 (1934) 29-38.

[38] L. P. Van Reeuwijk, Technical paper 9. Procedure for soil analysis 6th edition. International Soil Reference and Information center. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation, (2002) pp.1-14.

[39] E.G. Ilori, S.O. Olubodun, F.E. Okieimwen and M.O. Ekebafe, Phytoremediation by maize (Zeamays L. ) of soil co-contaminated with crude oil and cadium., J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria 36(1) (2011) 110-114.

[40] L.C. Osuji and S.O. Adesiyan, The Isiokpo oil-pipeline leakage: Total organic carbon/organic matter contents of affected soils, Chem. Biodivers. 2 (2005) 1079 – 1085.

[41] A. Amadi, Y. Uebari, Use of poultry manure for amendment of oil polluted soils in relation to growth of maize (Zea mays L. ), Environ. Int. 18(1992) 54-57.

[42] I. L. R. Oyem and I L Oyem, Effects of Crude Oil Spillage on Soil Physico-Chemical Properties in Ugborodo Community , IJMER) 3(6)13 (2013) 3336 - 3342.

[43] E.U. Onweremadu, and E.T. Eshett, Boron distribution and relationship with selected soil properties in an oil-polluted Arenic Paleudult. J. Environ. Sci., 1(3) (2007) 116-121.

[44] A. P. Uzoije, Uzoigwe L. O. and Kamalu C.I.O. Activated range Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC); An acceptable remediation techniques for crude oil pollution effect, Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(1) (2012) 51-58.

[45] C. T. I. Odu, O. F. Esuruoso, L. C. Nwoboshi and J. A. Ogunwale, Environmental study of the Nigerian Agip Oil Company operational areas. Proc. Soils and Fresh Water Vegetation, Conference, Milan, Italy (1985).

[46] F.B.G. Tanee and E. Albert, Biostimulationpotential of sawdust onsoil parameters and Cassava (Manihot esculenta); Crantz) yields in crude oil polluted tropical soil, Advances in Environmental Biology 5 (2011) 938 – 945.

[47] A. Jobson, M. Mclaugli., F. D. Cook and D. W. S. Westlake, Effect of Amendments on the microbial utilization of oil applied to soil, App. Microb. 27(1) (1974) 166-171.

[48] C.B. Chikere, G.C. Okpokwasili and B.O. Chikere, bacterial diversity in a tropical crude oil polluted soil undergoing bioremediation, African Journal of Biotechnology 8(11) (2009) 2535-2540.

[49] M. Marinescu, M. Toti, V. Tanase, V. Carabulea, G. Plopeanu and I. Calciu, An assessment of the effects of crude oil pollution on soil properties, Annals. Food Science and Technology, 11(1) (2010) 94 – 99.

[50] R. Margesin and F. Schinner, Bioremediation (natural attenuation and biostimulation) of diesel - oil - contaminated soil in an alpine glacier skiing area, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67(6) (2001) 73127–3133.

[51] N. A. Obasi, E. Eze, D. I. Anyanwu and U. C. Okorie, Effects of organic manures on the physicochemical properties of crude oil polluted soils, African Journal of Biochemistry Research 7(6) (2013) 67-75.

[52] C. C. Anyadike, I. Akunne, B. O. Ugwuishiwu, G. N. Ajah and V. I. Ogwo, Remediation of crude oil-polluted soil with lime, IOSR Journal of Engineering, 3(10) (2013) 05 – 07.

[53] F. B. G. Tanee and P. D. S Kinako, Comparative studies of biostimulation and phytoremediation in the mitigation of crude oil toxicity in tropical soil, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 12(2) (2008) 143 – 147.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.