Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILNS > ILNS Volume 52 > Impregnating Storage Materials with Neem Seed Oil...
< Back to Volume

Impregnating Storage Materials with Neem Seed Oil against Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Stored Bambara Seeds (Vigna subterranean L.) Verdcourt

Full Text PDF


Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed oil (NSO) is acclaimed to have some form of insecticidal action against more than 400 insect species in at least 10 to 13 orders. The main delimitating factor in the wide acceptance of this well tested plant as a storage pest bioinsecticide is its foul sulfurous smell and bitter taste which impinges on the acceptability and marketability of treated produce. To ameliorate this shortfall, therefore, an assessment of the potential of impregnating different storage materials; [plastic containers (PLC), Bagco bags (BCB), Black polyethylene bags (BPB), white polyethylene bags (WPB) and calico bags (CAB)], with NSO in the management of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in stored Bambara seeds (Vigna subterranea L.), was conducted in the laboratory. The experiment was laid out in a 4 x 5 factorial arrangement fitted into a completely randomized design (CRD). Factor A represented four concentrations of NSO (0.00, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 ml/ 100g seed), while factor B were the five different storage materials. The treatments were replicated four times Generally, seeds stored with impregnated storage materials recorded more bruchids mortality, reduced oviposition rate, decreased number of emerged insects (F1 and F2) and had less damaged seeds (and hence decreased weevil perforation index, WPI) than the control. Concentration performance was dose related though the highest (1.50 %) did not differ statistically (P=0.05) from the medium (1.00 %) concentration. Seeds stored in BPBs had the highest mortalities, but recorded the lowest in number of eggs oviposited, egg/seed ratio, F1, F2 and cumulative emergence, respectively. These results differed significantly (P=0.05) with the seeds stored in other materials. BPB stored seeds were also the least damaged with lowest exit holes/seed, seeds with holes and WPI, respectively. The performance of BPB was closely followed by seeds stored in WPBs in all the parameters tested. Conversely, seeds stored in BCBs recorded the lowest mortalities but the highest in all other parameters assessed. Other storage materials (PLC and CAB) had better storage quality than BCB materials. Impregnation of storage materials with NSO could be a better option to direct seed application with its attendant drawback. The use of NSO impregnated black polyethylene bags, within the scope of the storage materials screened, to control damage by C. maculatus in stored Bambara seeds, should be encouraged.


International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 52)
F.O. Ojiako et al., "Impregnating Storage Materials with Neem Seed Oil against Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Stored Bambara Seeds (Vigna subterranean L.) Verdcourt", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 52, pp. 28-42, 2016
Online since:
March 2016

[1] PROTA. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 1: Cereals and Pulses. Editors: M. Brinks and G. Belay, Wageningen, PROTA Foundation - Backhuys – CTA, (2006). 298 p http: /uses. plantnet-project. org/en/PROTA, _Introduction_to_Cereals_and_pulses.


[2] Bamshaiye, O.M., Adegbola, J.A. and Bamishaiye, E.I. Bambara groundnut: an under- utilized nut in Africa. Advances in Agricultural Biotechnology, (2011). 1: 60-72.

[3] Swanevelder, C. J. Bambara: Food for Africa. National Department of Agriculture of the ARC-Grain Crops Institute, South Africa, (1998). 16 pp.

[4] Nwanna, L. C., Enujiugha, V. N., Oseni, A. O., Nwanna, E. E. Possible effects of fungalfermentation on Bambara groundnuts (Vigna subterranean (L. ) Verde) as a feedstuff resource. Journal of Food Technology, (2005). 3(4): 572-575.

[5] BamNetWork. Crops for the Future Research Centre (CFFRC). The University of Nottingham , Malaysia Campus, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia, (2015). http: /bambaragroundnut. org/bambara-groundnut-basics.

[6] Hillocks, R.J., Bennett, C. and Mponda, O.M. Bambara groundnut: A Review of utilization, market potential and crop improvement. African Crop Science Journal, (2012). 20(1): 1 – 6.

[7] Okonkwo, S. I. and Opara, M. F. The Analysis of Bambara Nut (Voandzeia subterranean (L. ) thouars) for Sustainability in Africa. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, (2010). 5 (6): 394 -396.


[8] Magagula, C.N. and Maina, Y.T. Activity of Callosobruchus maculatus (F. ) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) on selected Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc. ) landraces and breeding lines. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. (2012).

[9] Ezedinma F. O. C. and Maneke, F. O. Preliminary studies on Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean Verdc. ) in the derived savanna belt of Nigeria. Tropical Grain Legumes Bulletin, (1985). 31: 39-44.

[10] Atiku, A. A., Aviara, N. A. and Haque, M. A. Performance Evaluation of a Bambara Ground Nut Sheller. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Journal of Scientific Research and Development. Manuscript PM 04 002, (2004). VI: 1 – 18.

[11] Ellah, M. M. and Singh, A. Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc. ) Yield as Influenced by Phosphorus and Cultivars in the Semi-Arid Savanna of Nigeria. Journal of Plant Sciences, (2008). 3: 176-181.


[12] Ayamdoo, A. J., Demuyakor, B., Badii, K.B., and Sowley, E.N.K. Storage systems for Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) and their implications for bruchid pest management in Talensi-Nabdam District, Upper East Region, Ghana. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, (2013).

[13] Doku, E.V. Problems and Prospects for the Improvement of Bambara Groundnut. In: Proceedings of the International Bambara Groundnut Symposium. University of Nottingham, UK., (1996). 19-37.

[14] Beck, C.W. and Blumer, L.S. A Handbook on Bean Beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. National Science Foundation, (2014). Pp1-14. www. beanbeetles. org.

[15] Maina, Y.T. and Lale N.E.S. Efficacy of Integrating Varietal Resistance and Neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Seed Oil for the Management of Callosobruchus maculatus Infesting Bambara Groundnut in Storage. Nigerian Journal of Entomology, (2004).

[16] Gwinner, J.; Harnisch, R. and Muck, O. GTZ manual on the prevention of post - harvest grain losses. GTZ Post-harvest Project, Pickhuben 4, D-2000 Hamburg 11, FRG, (1990). 294p.

[17] Beti. J.A.; Phillips, T. W and Smalley, E.B. Effects of maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on production of Aflatoxin B1 by Aspegillus flavus in Stored Corn. Journal of Economic Entomology, (1995). 88 (6): 1776-1782.


[18] Munthali, D.C. and Sondashi, M.N. Evaluation of Vigna unguiculata and Combretum imberbe Ashes, Bacillus thuringiensis and Actellic Powder for the Control of Cowpea Weevil, callosobruchus maculantus in Stored Bambara groundnut, CICE, Botswana College of Agriculture. Gaborone Botswana, (2004).

[19] Maina, Y.T., Sastawa, B. M and Bidliya, B.S. Susceptibility of Local Cowpea (Vigna nguiculata L. Walpers) Cultivars to Callosobruchus maculatus Infestation in Storage. UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology, (2006).


[20] Aviara, N. A, Lawal, A.A., Atiku, A.A. and Haque1, M. A. Bambara groundnut Processing, Storage and Utilization in North Eastern Nigeria. Continental Journal of Engineering Sciences, (2013). 8 (1): 28 – 36.

[21] Adesiyun A. A. Insects, food, fiber and weeds: A prospect of control without pesticides. 34th Inaugural Lecture, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, 20 April, (1989), p.33.

[22] Ojiako, F. O. and Adesuyin, A. A. Post-Infestation Assessment of Some Plant Materials and Actellic Dust (Pirimiphos-Methyl) on Callosobruchus maculatus (F. ) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Adult Emergence and Seed Damage. Environment & Ecology, (2008).

[23] Bloch, P. Pilot for protecting against counterfeit crop protection products CLIPnet. Agricultural Research for Development Community (Ag4Dev), (2012).

[24] Grzywacz, D. and Leavett,R., Biopesticides and their role in modern pest management in West Africa. Natural Research Institude/University of Greenwich Collaboration, (2012). http: /www. nri. org/news/archive/2012/20120413-biopesticides. htm.

[25] Arnason, J.Y.S.; Mackinnon, M.B.; Isman, M.B. and Durst, A. Insecticides in tropical plants with non-neurotic modes of action. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, (1992). 28: 107-131.

[26] Ojiako, F. O. and Adesuyin, A. A. Assessment of the Curative Potency of Some Plant Materials on Cowpea seeds with Established Infestation of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricus) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae). Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, (2013).

[27] Jernigan, C. The Disadvantages of Neem Oil. (2010). https: /suite. io/kristie-jernigan/322r2es.

[28] Discover Neem. Neem Safety, Side Effects and Toxicity. (2015). http: /www. discoverneem. com/neem-safety-and-side-effects. html.

[29] NIMET. Nigeria Meteorological Unit, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria Annual Report, (2010). http: /nimet. gov. ng/weather/owerri/nigeria.


[30] Southgate, B.J.; Howe, R.W. and Brett, G.A. The specific status of Callosobruchus maculatus (F. ) and Callosobruchus chinensis (F. ). Bulletin of Entomological Research, (1957). 48: 79-89.


[31] Halstead, D.G.H. External sex differences in stored products Coleoptera. Bulletin of Entmological Research, (1963). 54: 199–134.

[32] Baributsa, D., Baoua, I. Lowenberg-DeBoer, J., Abdoulaye, T. and Murdock, L. L. Purdue Improved Cowpea Storage (PICS) Technology. Purdue Extension Bulletin #E-262-W, (2013). 1- 4.

[33] Fatope, M. O., Mann, A. and Takeda, Y. Cowpea Weevil Bioassay: A simple prescreen for Plants with grain Protectant Effects. International Journal of Pest Management, (1995). 41: 44-86.


[34] Achio S., Ameko E., Kutsanedzie F. and Alhassan S. Insecticidal effects of various neem preparations against some insects of agricultural and public health concern. International Journal of Research in BioSciences, (2012). 1 (2): 11-19.

[35] Biswas, K. ; Chattopadhyay, I. ; Banerjee, R. K. ; Bandyopadhyay, U. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Neem (Azadirachta indica). Current Science, (2002). 82 (11): 1336-1345.

[36] Debashri, M and Tamal, M. A review on efficacy of Azadirachta indica A. Juss based biopesticides: An Indian perspective. Research Journal of Recent Sciences, (2012). 1: 94-99.

[37] Schmutterer, H. and Singh, R. P. List of insect pests susceptible to neem products, pp. 326Ð365. In H. Schmutterer (ed. ), The neem tree: Azadirachta indica A. Juss and other Meliaceae plants. VCH, New York, (1995).


[38] Dimetry, N. Z. Prospects of botanical pesticides for the future in integrated pest management programme (IPM) with special reference to neem uses in Egypt. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, (2012). 45 (10): 1-24.

[39] Obeng-Ofori, D. and Dankwah, J. A. Comparative efficacies of three insecticidal materials and steam treatment for protection of Bambara groundnut against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. ) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science, (2014).


[40] Ilesanmi1, J. O. and Gungula, D. T. Preservation of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp) Grains against Cowpea Bruchids (Callosobruchus maculatus) Using Neem and Moringa Seed Oils. International Journal of Agronomy, (2010). ID 235280: 1 – 8.


[41] Maina, Y. T., Mbaya, A. M. and Mailafiya, D. M. Comparative study on the effects of storage period of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed oil in controlling Callosobruchus maculatus (F. ) infestation of stored cowpea grains. Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science (DRJAFS), (2014).


[42] Odeyemi, O. O. and Ashamo, M. O. Efficacy of neem plant (Azadirachta indica) extracts in the control of Trogoderma granarium, a pest of stored groundnuts. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, (2005). 112 (6), 586–593.


[43] Saxena, R. C. Practical applications of neem against pests of stored products. Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions, Orlando, Florida, USA, 6-9th November, (2006).

[44] Anonymous Preserve clothes from pests using neem leaves. Home Management Tips and Information. Powered by WordPress, (2013). http: /www. homemanagementinfo. com/tag/neem-leaves.

[45] Ahmed, S. Use of neem materials by Indo – Pakistani farmers: some observations. In: R. C. Saxena and S. Ahmed eds. Proceedings of Research Planning Workshop, Botanical Pest Control Project. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, (1984).

[46] Koona, P., Tatchago, V. and Malaa, D. Impregnated bags for safer storage of legume grains in West and Central Africa. Journal of Stored Products Research, (2007). 43 (3): 248–251.


[47] Rajendran R., Radhai R., Balakumar C., Ahamed H. A. M., Vigneswaran C. and Vaideki K. Synthesis and Characterization of Neem Chitosan Nanocomposites for Development of Antimicrobial Cotton Textiles. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, (2012).

[48] Cuizon, G. Color and Heat Absorption. Bukisa. Share your knowledge, (2015). http: /www. bukisa. com/articles/64635_color-and-heat- absorption#ixzz3sQFqm7BGKnows.

[49] KnowsWhy. com. Why Does Black Absorb Heat? Wondering Why?, (2015). http: /www. knowswhy. com/why-does-black-absorb-heat.

[50] Chinwada, P. and Giga, D.P. Sunning as a technique for disinfecting stored beans. Postharvest Biology and Technology, (1996). 9: 335-342.


[51] Lale, N.E.S. and Sastawa, B. The Effect of Sun-drying on the infestation of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) by post-harvest insects in the Lake Chad District of Nigeria. International Journal of Pest Management, (1996). 42 (4): 281-283.


[52] Songa, J. and Rono, W. Indigenous Methods for Bruchid beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Control in Stored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ). International Journal of Pest Management, (1998). 44 (1): 1-4.


[53] Wessene, M. C. Utilization of solar heat for the control of cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Thesis submitted to the School of Graduate Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, (2004).

[54] Seck, D., Haubruge, G., Marlier, E. and Gaspar, C. Alternative protection of cowpea seeds against Callosobruchus maculatus (F. ) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using hermetic storage alone or in combination with Boscia senegalensis (Pers) Lam ex Poir. Journal of Stored Products Research, (1996).


[55] Murdock, L.L., Margam, V., Baoua, I., Balfe, S. and Shade, R.E. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids. Journal of Stored Products Research, (2012). 49: 166-170.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.