Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILNS > Volume 50 > Roof Runoff Water as Source of Pollution: A Case...
< Back to Volume

Roof Runoff Water as Source of Pollution: A Case Study of Some Selected Roofs in Orlu Metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria

Full Text PDF


Samples collected from different runoffs; AR, GMR, TR, ASR, and DR for aluminum roof, galvanized metal roof, thatch roof, asbestos roof and ambient rainfall respectively were analyzed for pH, conductivity, turbidity, TDS, TSS, NO3-, PO43-, Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn and Pb. The result indicates that the mean concentration of the parameters analyzed ranged from 5.8± 0.39 –7.10±0.70, 22.25±11.70-79.99± 3.40μScm-1, 1.47±0.43 - 46.53±1.60mg/l, 11.90±0.93 - 59.83±1.62NTU,15.53±0.70 - 204.53±5.08mg/l, 0.93±0.06 - 2.55±0.13 mg/l, 1.33±0.22 - 7.30±0.57mg/l respectively for pH, conductivity, TDS, turbidity, TSS, PO43- and NO3-, and the levels of the heavy metals (in mg/l); Cd, Cu, Fe, Zn and Pb ranged from 0.0023±0.001– 0.0521±0.004, 0.052±0.01–0.2483±0.02, 0.0348±0.01–1.1120±0.07, 0.0161±0.01-0.8093±0.02 and 0.0106±0.01-0.0499±0.002 respectively. Ranking of the heavy metal in roof runoff is in the order; Fe>Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb. The result compared with WHO standard showed elevated level of the parameters analyzed with Cd and Pb exceeding the limit. Though the result of this study showed some variability which is an indication of the type of roofing material; air quality of the environment and industrial activity going on in the area. It could be deduced from the result that roof runoff may be a non point source of environmental pollution owning to the release of heavy metals and other pollutants into the environment, and increased concentration of some of the pollutants as reported by this study suggests that roof runoff water could impact negatively to the environment and if consumed without being treated may be injurious to human health.


International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 50)
F. C. Ibe and B. O. Ibe, "Roof Runoff Water as Source of Pollution: A Case Study of Some Selected Roofs in Orlu Metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 50, pp. 53-61, 2016
Online since:
Jan 2016

[1] Mendez C. B., Klenzendorf J. B., Afshar B. R., Simmons M. T., M. E. Barrett, Kinney K., Kirisits. M. J. (2011) The effect of roofing material on the quality of harvested Rainwater water r e s e arch 45, p.2049 - (2059).

[2] Gregoire B. G., Clausen J. C. (2011) Effect of a modular extensive green roof on stormwater runoff and water quality Ecological Engineering 37, p.963–969l.

[3] Burton G.A., Jr. I and Pitt, R. (2002) Storm water effects handbook; A tool box for watershed managers, scientists and engineers, CRC, BOCA Raton, Fla.

[4] Clark S.E. Wre P.E. D, Asce M., Steele K.A., Asce A.M., Spicher J. Siu C.Y. S, Lalor M.M., Pitt R. and Kirby J.T. (2008) Roofing materials contribution to storm-water runoff pollution. Journal of Irrigation and drainage Engineering Vol. 134 No. 5.

[5] Polkowska Z. and Namiesnik J. (2008) Road and roof runoff waters as a source of pollution in a big urban agglomeration (Gidansk, Poland). Ecol. Chem and Eng., 15(3) pp.375-385.

[6] Ayenimo, J. G, Adekunle, A. S, Makinde, W.O. and Ogunlusi, G.O. (2006) Heavy metal fractionation in Roof runoff in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Internat. J. Environ. Sci. and Tech., 3(3) pp.221-227.

[7] Lamprea K and Ruban V. (2008) Micro pollutants in atmospheric deposition, roof runoff and storm water runoff of a suburban catchment in Nantes, France. 11th International conference on Urban Draiange, Ediburgh, Scotlant, (2008).

[8] Bannerman, R.T., Owens, D.W., Dodds, R.B., Hornewer, N.J., 1993. Sources of pollutants in Wisconsin stormwater. Water Sci. Technol. 28, 241–259.

[9] Egodawatta, P., Thomas, E., Goonetilleke, A., 2009. Understanding the physical Processes of pollutant build-up and wash-off on roof surfaces. Sci. Total Environ. 407, 1834–1841.

[10] Förster, J., 1996. Patterns in roof runoff contamination and their implications on practice and regulation of treatment and local infiltration. Water Sci. Technol. 33, 39–48.

[11] Van Metre P.C. and Mahler B.J. (2003) The contribution of particles washed from rooftops to contaminate loading to urban streams, chemosphere 52(10) pp.1727-1741.

[12] Boulanger, B., Nikolaidis, N.P., 2003. Mobility and aquatic toxicity of copper in an urban watershed. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 39, 325–326.

[13] Njoku P.C. and Ibe F.C. (2009) Heavy metal accumulation in electronic technician in Owerri JCSN, Vol. 34 91) Pp. 1-4.

[14] Tobiszewski M., Polkowska Z., Konieczka P. and Manuenik J. (2010) Roofing materials as pollution eemitters concentration changes during runoff polish J. of Environ. Stud. Vol. 19 No. 5 pp.1019-1028.

[15] Forster J. (1999) variability of roof runoff quality. Wat Sci Tech. 35 (5) Pp. 137-144.

[16] Chang M., McBroom M. W and Beasley R. S (2004) Roofing as a source of non point water pollution, J. Environ. Man. 73 (4) Pp. 307-315.

[17] Gromaire -Mertz M.C., Garnaud S., Saad M. and Chebbo G. (2001) Contribution of different sources to the pollution of wet weather flow in combined sewers. Wat. Res., 35(2) Pp 521-533.

[18] Van Metre P.C. and Mahler B.J. (2003) The contribution of particles washed from Roof tops to contaminate loading to urban streams, chemosphere, 52(10) pp.1727-1741.

[19] Nichelson N., Clark S.K., Long B. V Spicher J. and Steele K.A. (2009).

[20] Mendez B.C., Afshar B.R., Kinney K., Barrett M. E and Kirisits M.J. (2010).

[21] Olaoye R. A and Olaniyan, O. S (2012) Quality of rainwater from different roof material. internet. J . of Eng. And Tech Vol. 2 (8) Pp. 1413-1421.

[22] Despin C., Farahbakhsh, K. and Leidl C. (2009) Assessment of rainwater quality from rainwater harvesting systems in Ontario, Canada, Journal of water supply: Research and Technology-Aqua 58 (2) Pp. 117-134.

[23] Efe S.I. (2006). Quality of rainwater harvesting for rural communities of Delta State Nigeria. The Environment 26(3): Pp. 175-181.

[24] Egereonu U. U (2005) A study of the ground water pollution by nitrate in the environment, Aba, Nigeria, JCSN 30 (2), Pp. 211-218.

[25] Akintola O. A, Sangodoyin AY and Agumbiade F.O. (2013) Evaluation of environmental pollution effects on domestic roof-harvested rainwater in southern part of Nigeria using impact indices. Water practice and Technology 8(2) Pp 245-255.

[26] Allen S. E, Grimshaw H. M, Parkinson J. A and Quamby C. (1974) Chemical analysis of ecological materials, Blackwell scientific publications, Oxford, London, p.103, 104.

[27] Egereonu U.U. and Ozuzu C.I.U. Physiochemical analysis of the River Niger at Onitsha Bank, Nigeria (2005) J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria 30 (2) p.197 – 203.

[28] Ibe F.C., Chinedu N. B. and Ikpa C.B. C (2014) Physiochemical analysis of some surface and ground water sources in Etim Ekpo, LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences AS 17(2) p.11250 – 11260.

[29] Njoku V.O., Obi C. and Obodo G. A (2007) Heavy metals concentrations in some surface and ground waters in Imo State, Int. J. of Natural and Applied Sci. 3(2), pp.157-159.

[30] Zhang W., Li S., and Tang F., (2013).

[31] Simmons G., Hope V., Lewis G., Whitmore J., and Wanzhen G., (2001) Contamination of potable roof-collected rainwater in Auckland, New Zealand. Water Res. 35, 2001, p.1518–1524.

[32] Adedeji O.H. and Olayinka O. O (2014) Micro-pollutants in urban residential roof runoff. Environmental and health implication 10SR-JESTFT 8(2) version (III) Pp. 55-63.

[33] Lee J.Y., Yang J.S., Han M., Choi J., (2010) Comparison of the microbiological and chemical characterization of harvested rainwater and reservoir water as alternative water resources. Science of the Total Environment 408 (4), pp.896-905.

[34] Yaziz, M.I., Gunting, H., Sapari, N., Ghazali, A.W., 1989. Variations in rainwater quality from roof catchments. Water Research 23(6), pp.761-765.

[35] Lee J.Y., Bak G., Han M. (2012) Quality of roof-harvested rainwater-comparison of different roofing materials. Environ. Pollut. 162, 422-429.

[36] Singh, T., Kalra, Y.P., (1975). Specific conductance method for in situ estimation of total dissolved solids. Journal of American Water Works Association 67 (2), pp.99-100.

[37] Quek U. and Forster J. (1993) Trace metals in roof runoff. Water, Air and Soil pollution 68, 373-389.

[38] Berndtsson J. C, Bengtson L. and Jinno K (2009) Runoff water quality from intensive and extensive vegetated roofs. Ecol. Eng., 35, Pp 369-380.

[39] WHO (2003) WHO Guildelines for drinking water quality, Geneva. http: /www. who. int/water_health/dwq/guideline/en/ (accessed 5, May 2014).

[40] Gromaire-Mertz M.C., Garnauds, Gionzalez A. and Chebbo G. (1999). Characterization of Urban runoff pollution in Paris. Wat. Sci. Tech., 39(2) Pp. 1-8.

[41] Uzoma V. C Alsangodoyin A.Y. (2000) Rainwater chemistry as Influenced by atmospheric deposition of pollutants in southern Nigeria. Environ. Manage Health, 11 (2), 149-156.

[42] Dannecker W., AUM and Stedimann, H (1990) Substances load in rainwater runoff from different streets in Hamburg. Sci. Tet. Environ, 93, Pp. 385-392.

[43] Alloway B.J. and Ayres D.C. (1997) Chemical Principles of Environmental Pollution, 2nd Ed., Blackie Academic and Professional. Pp. 196.

[44] Han F.X., Banin A., Triplett G.B., (2001) Redistribution of heavy metals in arid-Ozone soil under a wetting-drying cycle soil moisture regime. Soil Sci. 166, pp.18-28.

[45] Madrid F and Florido M.C. (2010) Effects of the presence of composted biosolids on the metal immobilizing action in an urban soil. J. Hazard, Mater. 176, Pp. 792-798.

Show More Hide