Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILNS > Volume 5 > Zero Waste: An Innovation for Less Polluting...
< Back to Volume

Zero Waste: An Innovation for Less Polluting Emission Processes, Resource Management Practices and Policies

Removed due to plagiarism.

Full Text PDF


The rising levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the Earth’s atmosphere have the potential to cause changes in our climate. Some of these emission increases can be traced directly to solid waste. Landfills are among the largest emitters of carbon dioxide and methane, the key GHGs. Thus, effective mitigation of these emissions through formalization of waste reduction into the waste management system to reduce land filling could provide environmental benefits of reducing the adverse impacts of climate change. This paper therefore proposes waste prevention and recycling-jointly referred to as waste reduction as better and most potent strategies for the management of solid waste and for reducing greenhouse gases and calls on both the government and private agencies to check or control the increasing pollution or abuse of the environment by enforcing compliance with the laid out Policies, Pronouncements, Regulations and enacted Legislation especially in the developing countries. The study concludes that by choosing to prevent waste and recycle, less waste will be generated, the need for landfill will be minimal, energy demand will decrease, fewer fossil fuels will be burned and less methane and carbon dioxide will be emitted to the atmosphere which helps to curb climate change.


International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 5)
C.H. Ekanem et al., "Zero Waste: An Innovation for Less Polluting Emission Processes, Resource Management Practices and Policies", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 1-15, 2013
Online since:
November 2013

[1] Attenborough G. R., Gregory D. H., L. McGeochan (2002). Development of a landfill gas risk assessment model, Gassim. Proceeedings, 25th Annual landfill gas symposium, Solid Waste Association of North America, Monterey, CA, USA pp.24-26.

[2] Barlaz M. A., Ham R. K., Schaefer D. M., Critical Review in Environmental Control 19(6) (1990) 557-584.

[3] Briney A. (2013). An Overview of Municipal Waste and Landfills: How Cities Deal With Garbage, Recycling, Landfills, and Dumps. Free Geography Newsletter (free downloads) Retrieved on June19,2013. Available:

[4] Cointreau S. (1982). Environmental Management of Urban Solid Wastes in Developing Countries: A project Guide. Washington, DC: Urban Development Department, World Bank.

[5] Cointreau-Levine S. (1996). Sanitary Landfill : Siting and Criteria. Washington DC: World Bank Infrastructure Notes, Urban No. UE-12.

[6] EA (2008). European Environment Agency (Retrieved on March 12, 2013).

[7] Environmental protection Agency, EPA Ireland (2004). Supporting Document for the Determination of Diffuse Methane Emissions from Landfill Sites.

[8] Environmental Protection Agency, EPA (2009). Municpal Solid Waste Generation in the United States: Facts and Figures for (2009).

[9] Farquhar G., F. Rovers, Air and Soil Pollution 2 (1973) 483-495.

[10] Federal Ministry of Housing and Environment. The State of the Environment in Nigeria: Monograph Series, No. 4, Lagos, (no date).

[11] FEPA (1992.) Federal Environmental Protection Agency Act, (1992).

[12] FME (2005). Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja. National Environmental Sanitation Policy and Guidelines, January (2005).

[13] Grellier S., Guerin R., Robain H., Bobachev A., Vermeersch. F., Tabbagh A., Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics 13(4) (2008) 351-359.


[14] GRRN (2000). GrassRoots Recycling Network, Wasting and Recycling in the United States 2000, researched by Institute for Local Self-Reliance, March 2000, page 24.

[15] Hoeks J., Waste Management & Research 1(1) (1983) 323-335.

[16] Hoornweg D. L., Thomas M., Otten L. (1999). Composting and its Applicability in Developing Countries. Urban Waste Management Working Paper 8, Urban Development Division, World Bank, Washington, D.C., P.46.

[17] Hulme M., Conway D., Kelly P. M., Subk S., Downing T. E. (1995). The Impacts of Climate Change on Africa. CSERGE Working Paper GEC 95-12.

[18] IEA (2005). CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion (1971-2003). 2005 Edition. Paris, France: IEA.

[19] Ikoni U. D. (2010). An introduction to Nigerian Environmental Law. Malthouse Law Books Press Limited, Lagos, Nigeria.

[20] IPCC (2000). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Nakicenovic N, Swart R (Eds.). Cambridge.

[21] IPCC (2006). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Pre-publication Draft 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. IPCC/IGES, Hayama, Japan. Available at: (Retrieved on March 12, 2013).


[22] NESREA (2007). National Environmental Standards and Regulation Enforcement Agency. July.

[23] NEST (1991). Nigeria's Threatened Environment: A National Profile. Ibadan, Nigeria: Nigerian Environmental Study/Action Team (NEST).

[24] Nicholson S. E., Climate Research 17 (2001)123-144.

[25] NPE (1999). National Policy on Environment. Federal Ministry of Environment, (1999).

[26] Sheehan B. (2000). Zero Waste, Recycling and Climate Change. GrassRoots Recycling Network. Retrieved on June 19, 2013. Available at

[27] UNFCCC (2005). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Key GHG Data. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data for 1990-2003: UNFCCC Secretariat, Bonn, Germany.


[28] US EPA (1998). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1998 Update.

[29] US EPA (1998). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Management of Selected Materials in Municipal Solid Waste (EPA530-R-98-013) Washington. September1998.

[30] US EPA (1999). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 – 1997, April 1999 (EPA 236-R-99-003).

[31] USEPA (2002). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Solid Waste Management and Greenhouse gases: A Lifecycle Assessment of Emissions and Sinks. Retrieved on March 5, 2013. Available at

[32] Yesiller N., J. L. Hanson, W.-L. Liu., Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 131(11) (2005) 1330-1344.

[33] Goran Rajović, Jelisavka Bulatović, International Letters of Natural Sciences 3 (2013) 1-6.

[34] L. U. Grema, A. B. Abubakar, O. O. Obiukwu, International Letters of Natural Sciences 3 (2013) 21-27.

[35] Hyginus A. Nwona, International Letters of Natural Sciences 4 (2013) 1-9.

[36] Enim Enim Asira, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 2 (2014) 53-57. ( Received 04 October 2013; accepted 05 November 2013 ).

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.