Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILNS > ILNS Volume 49 > Rainfall Variability and its Effect on Yield of...
< Back to Volume

Rainfall Variability and its Effect on Yield of Rice in Nigeria

Full Text PDF


Nigerian rice production is mainly rain-fed and naturally prone to vagaries of rainfall variability. The objective of this study was to determine the probable effect of rainfall variability on average yield of rice in Nigeria during a 22-year period (1992-2013). The mean annual rainfall data from major rice producing states and national average rice yields were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression models. Results of the analysis revealed a significant variation in mean annual rainfall across vegetation grouping in a descending order from swamp forest to Sudan savanna. Mean rainfall was adequate for rice production in all vegetation grouping except Sudan savanna where rainfall was less than the prescribed minimum quantity for rice production. Rainfall was positively related to yield of rice in all vegetation grouping except Sudan savanna but relationship was not statistically significant at 5% level. It was concluded that annual rainfall variability had statistically negligible effect on national average rice yield. It was recommended that the cultivation of rice should go along with farming practices that aimed at mitigating adverse effects of rainfall variability on the yield of rice especially in the Sudan savanna.


International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 49)
S. A. Tiamiyu et al., "Rainfall Variability and its Effect on Yield of Rice in Nigeria", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 49, pp. 63-68, 2015
Online since:
November 2015

ATA Rice transformation working document. Agricultural Transformation Agenda of the Federal Government of Nigeria, 2011, Pp35.

FAO, FAOSTAT database: http: /www. faostat. fao, org retrieved on 31 December, (2013).

NCRI, Recommended practices for rice production, harvesting and post harvest handling M.E. Abo, E.O. Bright, A.T. Maji, M.N. Ukungwu, I.O. Fatoba, A.A. Ochigbo (Eds. ) National cereals Research Institute, Badeggi, Nigeria. 2009. Pp14.

R.T. Cruiz, Mitigating impacts of climate change in rice production, Agribusiness Weekly, International rice Research Institute, Philippines, (2009).

E.B. Ogbuene, Impact of meterological parameters on rice yield: An approach for environmental resource sustainability in Ebonyi rice farmland, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries, 2, 2/3, (2010).

R.M. Olanrewaju, Climate and rice production in a part of the Niger River Basin Development Authority, A case study of Edu and lafiagi LGA of Kwara state, Nigeria. Journal of Metereology and Climate science, 8(2) (2010): 102-110.

T.G. Apata, Effects of Global Climate Change on Nigerian Agriculture: An Empirical Analysis. CBN Journal of Applied Statistics, 2, 1 (2011): 31-50.

J.A. Ogundele, A. Jegede, Environmental impact of climate change on agricultural production in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries, 3, (2011): 72-79.

E.B. Audu, and D.S. Rizama, Rainfall Variability as Indices of Climate Variability: Evidence from Lokoja and its Environs, Kogi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Research and Technology, 1, 6, (2012): 281 - 288.

R. H. Rimi, S.H. Rahman, S. Karmakar, S. G. Hussain, Trend Analysis of Climate Change and Investigation on Its Probable Impacts on Rice Production at Satkhira, Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Meteorology, 6, 11, (2012): 37-50.

T.D. Akpenpuun, R.A. Busari, Impact of Climate on Tuber Crops Yield in Kwara State, Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 3, 1, (2013): 179-183.

C.U. Nwaobiala, and D.O. Nottidge, Effect of climatic variables on cassava farmers' production in Abia State, Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment. 9(4), (2013): 57-62.

K.A. Oluyole, L.A. Emaku, E.O. Aigbekan, O.O. Oduwole, Overview of the trend of climate change and its effect on Cocoa production in Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research 1(1) (2013): 10-13.

B. Koci, and M. Ceylan, Effects of climate change on rice production: The case of Turkey, African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(23), (2013)., pp.2903-2910.

A.S. Adeyemi, Climate Change and Environmental Threats. In Jimoh and Ifabiyi (Eds). Contemporary Issues in Environmental Studies. Haytee Press &Publishing Co. LTD, Nigeria, 2000, Pp 158.

J. A, Oyewole, A.M. Thompson, J.A. Akinpelu and O.O. Jegede, Variation of Rainfall and Humidity in Nigeria Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 4, 2, (2014): 29-37.

I.A. Madu, C.N. Ayogu, The Effects of Rainfall Variability on Crop Productivity in Northern Nigeria. In R.N. C Anyadike; I.A. Madu and C.K. Ajaero (eds). Proceedings on Climate Change and the Nigerian Environment. Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 2010, Pp. 135 & 136.

S.A. Tiamiyu, A.F. Lawal and T.M. Yusuf, Trend analysis of production and consumption of rice (Oryza sativa) in Nigeria: A multiperiod approach. Nigeria Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, 3(1) (2015): 63-70.

B. C. Okoye, G. N. Asumugha, C. A. Okezie, L. Tanko, C. E. Onyenweaku, Econometrics Assessment of the Trend in Cocoyam Production in Nigeria 1960/1961-l22003/2006. Agricultural Journal (Medwell online). 3, 2, (2008): 99-101.

P.C. Oguntunde, B. J. Abiodun, G. Lischeid, Rainfall trends in Nigeria, 1900 to 2000. Journal of Hydrology, 41(3) (2011): 207-218.

S.B. Ogungbenro and T. E. Morakinyo, Rainfall distribution and change detection across climatic zones in Nigeria. Weather and Climate Extremes, 5(6) (2014): 1-6.

J.R. Omotosho, Pre-rainy season moisture build-up and storm precipitation delivery in the West African Sahel. International Journal of Climatology, 28, 7, (2008): 937-946.

A. Oluleye, Change detection in rainfall anomalies across climatic zones in Nigeria. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science, 7, (2009): 6-10.

R. Rangaswamy, A textbook of Agricultural Statistics. New Age International Publishers. 2010, Pp 150.

Show More Hide
Cited By:

[1] C. Onyegbula, J. Oladeji, "Utilisation of climate change adaptation strategies among rice farmers in three states of Nigeria", Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Vol. 9, p. 14, 2017


[2] Z. Wang, P. Shi, Z. Zhang, Y. Meng, Y. Luan, J. Wang, "Separating out the influence of climatic trend, fluctuations, and extreme events on crop yield: a case study in Hunan Province, China", Climate Dynamics, 2017


[3] C. Onyegbula, J. Oladeji, "Utilization of climate change adaptation strategies among rice farmers in three states of Nigeria", Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Vol. 9, p. 223, 2017


[4] J. Eze, U. Aliyu, A. Alhaji-Baba, M. Alfa, "Analysis of Farmers' Vulnerability to Climate Change in Niger State, Nigeria", International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, Vol. 82, p. 1, 2018


[5] J. Eze, C. Vogel, P. Ibrahim, "Assessment of Social Vulnerability of Households to Floods in Niger State, Nigeria", International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, Vol. 84, p. 22, 2018


[6] J. Eze, "Drought occurrences and its implications on the households in Yobe state, Nigeria", Geoenvironmental Disasters, Vol. 5, 2018


[7] A. Abigail, C. Nti, G. Otoo, C. Buggy, "Climate change and food and nutrition security in the Bibiani-Anhwiaso Bekwai district in the Western Region of Ghana", Cogent Environmental Science, Vol. 5, 2019


[8] O. Bamiro, G. Adeyonu, A. Babatunde, S. Solaja, S. Sanni, O. Faronbi, T. Awe, "Effects of climate change on grain productivity in Nigeria (1970-2014)", IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 445, p. 012058, 2020


[9] J. Eze, P. Onokala, "Pattern of household vulnerability to desertification in Yobe state, Nigeria", GeoJournal, 2021


[10] J. Eze, B. Salihu, U. Gbanguba, M. Alfa, N. Ayanniyi, J. Ekaette, B. Olaniyan, "Rainfall Variability and its Impact on Crop Production in Niger State, Nigeria", BADEGGI JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND ENVIRONMENT, Vol. 3, p. 46, 2021


[11] I. Anugwa, E. Onwubuya, J. Chah, C. Abonyi, E. Nduka, "Farmers’ preferences and willingness to pay for climate-smart agricultural technologies on rice production in Nigeria", Climate Policy, p. 1, 2021

Show More Hide