Mycorrhizal fungi greatly enhanced the ability of plants to take up phosphorus and other nutrients those are relatively immobile and exist in low concentration in the soil solution. Fungi can be important in the uptake of other nutrients by the host plant. Mycorrhizae establish symbiotic relationships with plants and play an essential role in plant growth, disease protection, and overall soil quality. Of the seven types of mycorrhizae described in current scientific literature (arbuscular, ecto, ectendo, arbutoid, monotropoid, ericoid and orchidaceous mycorrhizae), the arbuscular and ectomycorrhizae are the most abundant and widespread. This chapter presents an overview of current knowledge of mycorrhizal interactions, processes, and potential benefits to society. The molecular basis of nutrient exchange between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and host plants is presented; the role of AM fungi in disease protection, alleviation of heavy metal stress and increasing grain production. Most land plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizas are mutualistic associations between fungi and plant roots. They are described as symbiotic because the fungus receives photo synthetically derived carbon compounds and the plant has increased access to mineral nutrients and sometimes water.
International Letters of Natural Sciences (Volume 38)
K. Ramakrishnan and G. Bhuvaneswari, "Influence on Different Types of Mycorrhizal Fungi on Crop Productivity in Ecosystem", International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 38, pp. 9-15, 2015