Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILCPA > ILCPA Volume 70 > Adsorption of Basic and Acidic Dyes onto...
< Back to Volume

Adsorption of Basic and Acidic Dyes onto Agricultural Wastes

Full Text PDF


The potential of almond leaves powder, (ALP) for the removal of Crystal violet (CV) and Congo red (CR) dyes from aqueous solution was investigated. The adsorbent (ALP) was characterized by FTIR and SEM analysis. Batch adsorption studies were conducted and various parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were studied to observe their effects in the dyes adsorption process. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of CV and CR dyes onto the adsorbent (ALP) was found to be: contact time (100mins), pH (10.0), temperature (343K) for an initial CV dye concentration of 50mg/L using adsorbent dose of 1.0g and contact time (100mins), pH (2.0), temperature (333K) for an initial CR dye concentration of 50mg/L using adsorbent dose 1.0g respectively. The experimental equilibrium adsorption data fitted best and well to the Freundlich isotherm model for both CV and CR dyes adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of ALP was found to be 22.96mg/g and 7.77mg/g for the adsorption of CV and CR dyes respectively. The kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic quantities such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), enthalpy (ΔH0) and entropy (ΔS0) were evaluated and the negative values of ΔG0 obtained for both dyes indicate the spontaneous nature of the adsorption process while the positive values of ΔH0 and ΔS0 obtained indicated the endothermic nature and increased randomness during the adsorption process respectively for the adsorption of CV and CR onto ALP. Based on the results obtained such as good adsorption capacity, rapid kinetics, and its low cost, ALP appears to be a promising adsorbent material for the removal of CV and CR dye stuff from aqueous media.


International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy (Volume 70)
N. J. Okorocha et al., "Adsorption of Basic and Acidic Dyes onto Agricultural Wastes", International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 70, pp. 12-26, 2016
Online since:
September 2016

[1] O. Siew-Teng et al., Equilibrium studies and kinetics mechanism for the removal of basic and reactive dyes in both single and binary systems using EDTA modified rice husk, Intl. J. Physical Sci. 5(5) (2010) 582-595.

[2] A. Riccardo et al., Adsorption of congo red dye on hazelnut shells and degradation with phanerochaete chrysospruim, Bio. Resources. 3(4) (2008) 1146-1155.

[3] F. Ferrero, Dye removal by low cost adsorbents: Hazelnut shells in comparison with wood saw dust, J. Mat. 142 (2007) 144-152.


[4] C.R.T. Bertolini et al., Adsorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution onto Zeolites from coal fly and bottom ashes, Electronic Journal of Chemistry. 5(3) (2013) 179-191.

[5] R. Han et al., Use of rice husk for adsorption of congo red from aqueous solution in column mode, Bioresource Technol. 99 (2008) 2938-2946.


[6] C. Sudipta et al., Adsorption of congo red by chitosan hydrogel beads impregnated with carbon nanotubes, Bioresource Technology. 101 (2010) 1800-1806.


[7] G. Crini, Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review, J. Bioreso. Technol. 97 (2006) 1062-1070.

[8] R. Malik, D.S. Rametke, S.R. Wate, Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon, J. Was. Manag. 27 (2006) 1–8.


[9] N. Sharma, B.K. Nnadi, Utilization of sugarcane baggase, an agricultural waste to remove malachite green dye from aqueous solution, J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 4(6) (2013) 1052-1065.

[10] K.S. Bharathi, S.T. Ramesh, Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: A review, Appl. Water Sci. 3 (2013) 773 –790.


[11] S.K. Bajpai, A. Jain, Equilibrium and thermodynamic studies for adsorption of crystal violet onto spent tea leaves, Water. 4 (2012) 52–71.

[12] M. Alshabanat, G. Alsenani, R. Almufarij, Removal of crystal violet dye from aqueous solutions onto date palm fiber by adsorption technique, Journal of Chemistry. (2013) 1-6.


[13] W.C. Wanyonyi, J.M. Onyari, P.M. Shiundu, Adsorption of congo red dye from aqueous solutions using roots of Eichhornia crassipes: Kinetic and equilibrium studies, Energy Procedia, 50 (2014) 862–869.


[14] G.K. Nagda, V.S. Ghole, Biosorption of congo red by hydrogen peroxide treated tendu waste, Iran. J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. 6(3) (2009) 195-200.

[15] M.C.S. Reddy, L. Sivaramakrishna, V.A. Reddy, The use of an agricultural waste material Jujuba seeds for the removal of anionic dye (Congo red) from aqueous solution, J. Hazard. Mater. 203–204 (2012) 118–127.


[16] G.C. Panda, S.K. Das, A.K. Guha, Jute stick powder as a potential biomas for the removal of congo red and rhodamine B from aqueous solution, J. Hazard. Mater. 164 (2009) 374–379.


[17] M.L. Gary et al., Spectroscopy: Infrared spectroscopy, 4th ed., Brooks/Cole, Bellingham, Washington, 2010, pp.15-87.

[18] C. Umpuch, B. Jutarat, Adsorption of organic dyes from aqueous solution by surfactant modified corn straw, Inter. J. Chem. Eng. Applications. 4(3) (2013) 134–139.

[19] P.S. Kumar et al., Adsorption of basic dye onto raw and surface-modified agricultural waste, Env. Progress and Sustainable Energy. 33(1) (2013) 87–98.

[20] M.H. Baek et al., Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using degreased coffee bean, J. Hazard. Mater. 176 (2010) 820-828.

[21] A. Ozcan et al., Modification of bentonite with a cationic surfactant: An adsorption study of textile dye Reactive Blue 19, J. Hazard Mater. 140 (2007) 173-179.


[22] R. Ahmad, R. Kumar, Adsorptive removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution using bael shell carbon, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 (2010) 1628–1633.


[23] T.F. Hassanein, B. Koumanova, Evaluation of adsorption potential of the agricultural waste wheat straw on basic yellowish 21, Journal of the University Chemical Technology and Metallurgy. 45(4) (2010) 407-414.

[24] G. Mckay, M.S. Otterbum, A.G. Sweetney, The removal of colour from effluent using various adsorbents, III Silica rate process, Water Research. 14 (1981) 14-20.


[25] P. Satish et al., Kinetics of adsorption of crystal violet from aqueous solutions using different natural materials, Inter. J. Env. Sci. 1(6) (2011) 1116–1134.

[26] T.L. Seey, M.J. Noordin, M. Kassim, Acidic and basic dyes removal of adsorption on chemically treated mangrove barks, Inter. J. Appl. Sci. Techno. 2(3) (2012) 270-276.

[27] H. Kaur, A. Thakur, Adsorption of congo red dye from aqueous solution onto ash of Cassia fistula seeds: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Chem. Sci. Rev. Lett. 3 (2014) 159-169.

[28] P. Donghee, Y. Yeoung-sang, M.P. Jong, The fast, present and future trends of biosorption, Biotechnology and Bioprocessing Engineering. 15 (2010) 86-102.


[29] Z.L. Yaneva, N.V. Georgieva, Insights into congo red adsorption on agro-industrial materials: Spectral, equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic, dynamic and desorption studies: A review, International Review of Chemical Engineering. 4(2) (2012).

Show More Hide
Cited By:

[1] V. Shikuku, G. Achieng', C. Kowenje, Impact of Textile Dyes on Public Health and the Environment, p. 239, 2020