Paper Titles in Periodical
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy
ILCPA Volume 58

Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILCPA > ILCPA Volume 58 > Physicochemical Parameters and Heavy Metals...
< Back to Volume

Physicochemical Parameters and Heavy Metals Content of Soil Samples from Farms in Minna

Full Text PDF


Physico-chemical properties and heavy metals content of soils were determined from seven farms in Minna, central Nigeria. Conventional analytical methods were employed to determine the physico-chemical properties and the heavy metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that pH values ranged from 6.64 - 7.70 indicating slight acidity to slight alkalinity of the soils. The total organic carbon values ranged from 0.95-2.25 % resulting in the presence of organic matter (1.63-3.87). The electrical conductivity values ranged from 17-37 μS/cm. The cation exchange capacity of the soil samples ranged from 3.68-5.15 cmol/kg. The heavy metals levels were in the following range: Cd (0.00018-0.00134 mg/g), Cu (0.0069-0.0476 mg/g), Fe (1.942-2.2059 mg/g), Mn (0.1825-0.3696 mg/g), Ni (0.0065-0.0069 mg/g) and Zn (0.0157-0.2252 mg/g). The concentration of the metals in the soil samples varied according to the following trend: Fe>Mn>Zn> Cu>Ni>Cd. The average concentration of all the metals in each farm also gave the trend Farm B>Farm G>Farm E>Farm C>Farm F>Farm D>Farm A. The findings indicate the presence of heavy metals in all the farms but only Fe was above the FAO/WHO standards.


International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy (Volume 58)
Z. Abdulhamid et al., "Physicochemical Parameters and Heavy Metals Content of Soil Samples from Farms in Minna", International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 58, pp. 154-163, 2015
Online since:
September 2015

[1] Abbas M, Parveen Z, Riazuddin Iqbal S, Bhutto R (2010) Monitoring of toxic metals (cadmium, lead, arsenic, and mercury) in vegetables of sindh, Pakistan, Kathmandu university. Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology 6, 60-65.


[2] Adefemi OS, Olaofe D, Asaolu SS (2007) Seasonal variation in heavy metal distribution in the sediment of major dams in Ekiti-State. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6(6): 705-707.


[3] Adriano DC (1986) Trace elements in the terrestrial environment, New York, Springer - Verlag, 107-469.

[4] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR (1994) Toxicological Profile for Zinc. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service 205-88-0608.

[5] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR (2000) Toxicological profile for manganese. U.S. Centers for Disease Control. http: /www. atsdr. cdc. gov/toxprofiles/tp151. html.


[6] Ajai, A.I., Iyaka, I. A., Ndamitso, m. and Uwem, B. (2014). Determination of physicochemical and heavy metal content of soil around paint industries in Kaduna. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 3(8), 221-225.

[7] Allen SE (ed. ) (1974). Chemical analysis of ecological materials. Blackwell, London.

[8] Anhwange BA, Kagbu JA, Agbaji EB, Gimba CE (2009).

[9] Arora M, Kiran B, Rani S, Rani A, Kaur B, Mittal N (2008) Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables irrigated with water from different sources. Food Chemistry 111, 811-815.


[10] Bashir, F., Tariq, M., Khan, M.H., Khan,R. A… Aslam, S. (2014) Fractionation of Heavy Metals and Their Uptake by Vegetables Growing in Soils Irrigated with Sewage Effluent. Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences. 38, 1 – 10.


[11] Boulding JR (1994) Description and sampling of contaminated soils. Afield Guide. 2nd Edn. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

[12] Cornell University Cooperative Extension (CUCE) (2007) Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). Agronomy Fact Sheet Series # 22. Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University.

[13] Debopam B, Himadri B, Sibabrata M, Anju P, Debabrata B, Lalitagauri R (2010) Heavy metal contamination in fruits and vegetables in two districts of West Bengal, India. Electronic Journal of Environment & Agricultural Food Chemistry 9, 1423-1432.

[14] Dosumu OO, Abdus-Salam N, Oguntoye S, Adekola FA (2005) Trace metals bio-accumulation by some Nigerian vegetables. Centrepoint (Science Edition), 13(1): 23-32.

[15] GWRTAC, (1997) Remediation of metals-contaminated soils and groundwater, Tech. Rep. TE-97-01. Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, GWRTAC-E Series.

[16] Hazelton PA, Murphy BW (2007) Interpreting soil test results: What do all the numbers mean? CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

[17] Horwath WR (2005) The importance of soil organic matter in the fertility of organic production systems, Western Nutrient Management Conference, Salt Lake City, UT. 6: 244-249.

[18] Iyaka YA, Kakulu SE (2009) Copper and zinc contents in urban agricultural soils of Niger State, Nigeria. African Research Review, an International Multi-disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia (3), 23 – 33.


[19] Jain TB, Graham RT, Adams DL (1997) Carbon to organic matter ratios for soils in Rocky Mountain coniferous forests. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61: 1190-1195.


[20] Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng YM, Huang YZ, Zhu YG (2008) Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China, Environmental Pollution 152(3): 686–692.


[21] Khodadoust AP, Reddy KR, Maturi K (2004) Removal of nickel and phenanthrene from kaolin soil using different extractants, Environmental Engineering Science 21(6): 691–704.


[22] Kiran GC (2013) Studies of physico-chemical parameters of different soil samples. Archives of Applied Science Research 6, 72-73.

[23] McLaughlin MJ, Parker DR, Clarke JM (1999) Metals and micronutrients – Food safety issues, Field Crops Resources 60: 143–163.


[24] Moore G, Dolling P, Porter B, Leonard L (1998) Soil acidity. In Soil guide. A handbook for understanding and managing agricultural soils (Ed. G Moore) Agriculture Western Australia Bulletin No. 4343.

[25] Olukanmi DO, Adeoye DO (2012) Heavy metal concentrations in road side soils from selected locations in the Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering and Technology 2(10).

[26] Omojola MO (1993) Modification of urea with maize cob waste for use as slow release nitrogen fertilizer. Dissertation, Ahmadu Bello University Nigeria pp.111-116.

[27] Opaluwa OD, Aremu MO, Ogbo LO, Abiola KA, Odiba IE, Abubakar MM, Nweze NO (2012).

[28] Périé C, Ouimet R (2008) Organic carbon, organic matter and bulk density relationships in boreal forest soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 88: 315-325.


[29] Popoola OE, Bamgbose O, Okonkwo OJ, Arowolo TA, Odukoya O, Popoola AO (2012).

[30] Pujar KG, Hiremath SC, Pujar AS, Pujeri US, Yadawe MS (2012) Analysis of physico-chemical and heavy metal concentration in soil of Bijapur Taluka, Karnataka. Science Revisions and Chemical Communication 2(1): 76-79.

[31] Singh B (2001) Heavy metals in soils: Sources, chemical reactions and forms. In: Smith D, Fityus S, Allman M (ed. ): Proceedings of the 2nd Australia and New Zealand.

[32] Sumaila A (2014) Assessment of some heavy metals in selected vegetables and soils obtained from farm sites in Paiko, Niger State, Nigeria. Dissertations, Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria.

[33] Troeh FR, Louis MT (2005) Soils and soil fertility. 6th ed. Ames, Blackwell, Iowa.

[34] Wuana RA, Okieimen, FE (2011) Heavy metals in contaminated soils: A review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. Retrieved from http: /dx. doi. org/10. 5402/2011/402647.


[35] Yahaya MI, Ezeh GC, Musa YF, Mohammad SY (2009) Analysis of heavy metals concentration in road side soils in Yauri, Nigeria. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry 4(3): 22-30.

[36] Yusuf KA, Oluwole SO (2009) Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb) contamination of vegetables in urban city: A case study in Lagos. Research Journal of Environmental Science 30, 292-298.


[37] Zhang MK, Liu ZY, Wang H (2010) Use of single extraction methods to predict bioavailability of heavy metals in polluted soils to rice. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 41(7): 820–831.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.