This article has been retracted.
Is referred to by “Retraction Notice: K.U. Isah et al., Betalain Pigments as Natural Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effect of Dye pH on the Photoelectric Parameters, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 55, pp. 86-93, 2015.”, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 79, p. 29 , 2018.
This article has been proven to be a duplicate of another publication.
The manuscript was submitted to the journal International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy (ILCPA) after it had been published online in the journal Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy. Duplicate publication in any form is considered to be a publication malpractice. The previous management as well as former Editors-in-Chief of the journal could not explain the circumstances of publishing the article. Besides, the authors informed us that they were also not aware of the conditions which led to the duplicate publication and agreed to the retraction. Therefore, the article was subjected to retraction for the purpose of eliminating the duplicate publication in line with the Retraction Guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
The Editorial office of the journal would like to deeply apologize to authors of the article as well as to Prof. Kasim Uthman Isah for publication of the article in the past and any inconvenience caused thereby. The authors of have been informed about the decision to retract the article. Thus, the paper has been declared retracted and marked accordingly.
This work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
 O'Regan, B., and Grätzel, M., A low cost high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films, Nature, 1991, 353, pp.737-740.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/353737a0
 Zhou, H., Wu, L., Gao, Y., Ma, T., Dye-sensitized solar cells using 20 natural dyes as sensitizers, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 2011, 219, pp.188-194.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2011.02.008
 Chang, H., Wu, H. M., Chen, T. L., Huang, K. D., Jwo, C. S., Lo, Y. J., Dye-sensitized solar cell using natural dyes extracted from spinach and ipomoea, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2010, 495 (2), p.606–610.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.10.057
 Erten-Ela, S., Photovoltaic effect of nanostructured TiO2 layers in dye sensitized solar cells, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 2012, 14 (9-10), p.758 – 762.
 Dai, Q., Rabani, J., Photosensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 films by anthocyanin dyes, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 2002, 148, p.17–24.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1010-6030(02)00073-4
 Calogero, G., Di Marco, G., Cazzanti, S., Caramori, S., Argazzi, R., Di Carlo, Al,. Alberto Bignozzi, C., Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits, International Journal of Molecular. Science., 2010, 11, pp.254-267.DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms11010254
 Gao, F. G., Bard, A. J. and Kispert, L. D., Photocurrent generated on a carotenoid-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystalline mesoporous electrode, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 2000, 130, p.49–56.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1010-6030(99)00193-8
 Zhang, D., S. M. Lanier, Downing, J. A., Avent, J. L., Lum J., McHale J. L., Betalain, pigments for dye-sensitized solar cells, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 2008, 195, p.72–80.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2007.02.009
 9. Koboyashi, Schmidt, N., J., Wray, V., Schliemann, W., Formation and Occurrence of Dopamine-derived Betacyanins, Phytochemistry, 2001, 56, pp.429-436.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-9422(00)00383-6
 Strack, D., Vogt, T., Schliemann, W., Recent advances in betalain research, Phytochemistry, 2003, 62, p.247–269.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-9422(02)00564-2
 Azeredo, H. M. C., Betalains, properties, sources, applications, and stability – a review, International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2009, 44, p.2365–2376.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2007.01668.x
 Mabberley, D. F., A Portable Dictionary of Vascular Plants, MJ. UK: Cambridge University Press, (1997).
 Impellizzeri, G., Piattelli, M., Sciuto, S., Acylated betacyanins from Drosanthemum floribundum, Phytochemistry, 1973, 12, p.2295– 2296.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(73)85138-6
 Hernández-Martínez, A. R.,, Vargas S., Estevez, M., Rodríguez, R., Dye-sensitized Solar Cells From Extracted Bracts Bougainvillea Betalain Pigments, 1st International Congress on Instrumentation and Applied Sciences, Cancun, Q. R., Mexico, October 26-29, (2010).DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms12095565
 Piattelli, M., Imperato, F., Pigments of Bougainvillea glabra, Phytochemistry, 1970, 9, p.2557–2560.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0031-9422(00)85777-5
 Jackman, R. L., Smith, J. L., Anthocyanins and betalains In: Natural food colourants, G. F. Hendry and J. D. Houghton, Eds. London: Blackie Academic & Professional, p.244–309, (1996).
 Schwartz, S. J., von Elbe, J. H., Identification of betanin degradation products, European Food Research and Technology, 1983, 176, p.448–453.
 Sze, S. M., Lee, M., Physics of Semiconductor devices, 2nd ed.New York: Wiley, p.807, (1969).
 Kimpa, M. I., Momoh, M., Isah, K. U.., Yahya, H. N., Ndamitso, M. M., Photoelectric Characterization of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using Natural Dye from Pawpaw Leaf and Flame Tree Flower as Sensitizers, Materials Sciences and Applications, 2012, 3, pp.281-286.DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/msa.2012.35041
 Pedreno, M. A., Escribano, J., Correlation between antiradical activity and stability of betanine from Beta vulgaris L roots under different pH, temperature and light conditions, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2001, 81, p.627–631.DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.851
 Qin, Y., Peng, Q., Ruthenium Sensitizers and Their Applications in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, International Journal of Photoenergy, 2012, 21 pages ( Received 03 June 2015; accepted 29 June 2015 ).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/291579
 "Retraction Notice: K.U. Isah et al., Betalain Pigments as Natural Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effect of Dye pH on the Photoelectric Parameters, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 55, pp. 86-93, 2015", International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 79, p. 29, 2018DOI: https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILCPA.79.29