Paper Titles in Periodical
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy
Volume 50


Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

ILCPA > Volume 50 > Phytoremediation Potential of Copper Contaminated...
< Back to Volume

Phytoremediation Potential of Copper Contaminated Soils in Calendula officinalis and Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Copper Toxicity

Full Text PDF


The present research was carried out to assess the effectiveness Calendula officinalis on removing the Cu from the contaminated soil and to examine the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on growth and some eco-physiological, biochemical characteristics in plants exposed to copper stress. This experiment was arranged as a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with four replications in greenhouse conditions. The experimental treatment consisted of four levels of Cu (0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg in potted soil) and three levels of salicylic acid (0, 1, 2mM) as foliar spray and chelate into soil. Results showed that with increasing levels of copper, reductions in shoot and root growth, leaf area and leaves number were statistically significant at 1 percent level. Although the copper concentration in shoots of Calendula officinalis could not exceed 1,000 mg/kg dry weight, the results showed that copper accumulation was higher in the shoots than in the roots. The results of the concentration of copper showed that translocation (TF) and bio-concentration factor (BCF) was greater than 1. Thus, Calendula officinalis could be classified as a copper tolerant species. Application of SA was found to alleviate negative effects generated by heavy metals like copper in plants. SA significantly increased growth and resistance index in copper stressed plants. SA as chelate in concentration of 2mM had the greatest effect on studied parameters. Results showed that salicylic acid can increase the efficiency of phytoremediation successfully.


International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy (Volume 50)
M. Afrousheh et al., "Phytoremediation Potential of Copper Contaminated Soils in Calendula officinalis and Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Copper Toxicity", International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 50, pp. 159-168, 2015
Online since:
May 2015

[1] Alloway, B.J., Jackson, A. P. and Morgan, H. 1990. The accumulation of cadmium by vegetables grown on soils contaminated from a variety of sources. Journal of Total Environment Science. 91(1): 223–236, (1990).

DOI: 10.1016/0048-9697(90)90300-j

[2] Ananieva, E.A., Christov, K.N. and Popov, L.P. 2004. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid leads to increased antioxidant capacity in leaves of barely plant exposed to paraquant. Journal of Plant Physiology. 161: 319-328.

DOI: 10.1078/0176-1617-01022

[3] Arduini, I., Godbold, D.L. and Onnis, A. 1995. Influence of copper on root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea L. and Pinus pinasterAit Seedlings. Tree Physiolog. 15: 411-415.

DOI: 10.1093/treephys/15.6.411

[4] Ariyakanon, N. and Winaipanich, B. 2006. Phytoremediation of Copper Contaminated Soil by Brassica juncea (L. ) Czern and Bidens alba (L. ) DC. var. radiate. Journal of Scientific Research Chula Univercity. 31(1): 49-57.

[5] Arnon, D.I. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplast, polyphenol-oxidase in Beta vulgaris. Journal of Plant Physiology. 24, 1- 15.

[6] Baker, J.M., and Brooks, R.R. 1989. Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements – a review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry. Journal of Biorecovery. 1(2): 81–126.

[7] Baker, A.J.M. 1994. The possibility of in situ heavy metal decontamination of polluted soils using crops of metal-accumulating plants. Research Conservation Recycl. 11, 41-49.

DOI: 10.1016/0921-3449(94)90077-9

[8] Berukova, M.V., Sakhabutdinova, R., Fatkhutdinova, R., Kyldiarova, A.I., and Shakirova, F. 2001. The role of hormonal changes in protective action of salicylic acid on growth of wheat seedlings under water deficit. Agrochemiya(Russ. ). 2: 51-54.

[9] Borsani, O., Valpuesta, V. and Botella, M.A. 2001. Evidence for a role of salicylic acid in the oxidative damage generated by NaCl and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology. 126: 1024–1030.

DOI: 10.1104/pp.126.3.1024

[10] Branquinho, C., Serrano, H.C., Pinto, M.J. and Martins-Loucao, M.A. 2006. Revisiting the plant hyperaccumulation criteria to rare plants and earth abundant elements. Journal of Environmental Pollution. 146(3): 437–443.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.06.034

[11] Brooks, R.R., Chamber, M.F., Nicks, L.J. and Robinson, B.H. 1998. Phytomining. Trends in Plant Science. 3 (9): 359-362.

[12] Chaignon, V. and Hinsinger, P. 2003. Heavy Metals in the Environment: A biotest for evaluating copper bioavailability to plants in a contaminated soil. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32: 824-833.

DOI: 10.2134/jeq2003.0824

[13] Chaney, R.L., Malik, M., Li, Y.M., Brown, S.L., Brewer, E.P. and Angle, J.S. 1997. Phytoremediation of Soil metals. journal of Current Opinion Biotechnology. 8: 279-84.

[14] Chen, H.M., Zheng, C.R., T.U. C. and Shen, Z.G. 2000. Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. Journal of Chemosphere. 41(1-2): 229-234.

DOI: 10.1016/s0045-6535(99)00415-4

[15] Drazic, G. and Mitailovic, N. 2005. Modification of cadmium toxicity in soybean seedlings by salicylic acid. Plant Science, 168: 511-517.

DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.09.019

[16] El-Tayeb, M.A., El-Enany, A.E. and Ahmad, N.L. 2006. Salicylic acid induced adaptive response to copper stress in sunflower. International journal of botany. 2(4): 372-379.

DOI: 10.3923/ijb.2006.372.379

[17] Ensley, B.D. 2000. Rational for use of phytoremediation. In: Raskin I, Ensley BD eds. Phytoremediation of toxic metals: using plants to clean- up the environment. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3-12.

DOI: 10.1002/jctb.374

[18] Erowid, W. 2007. Perlite Humidification, V 1. 3. Fageria NK, Baligar VC, Jones CA (1997b) Growth and Nutrition of Field Crops (2nd Edn), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

[19] Fariduddin, Q., Hayat, S. and Ahmad, A. 2003. Salicylic acid influences net photosynthetic rate, carboxilation efficiency, nitrate reductase activity and seed yield in Brassica juncea. Photosynthetica. 41: 281-284.

DOI: 10.1023/b:phot.0000011962.05991.6c

[20] Grytsyuk, N., Arapis, G., Perepelyatnikova, L., Ivanova, T. and Vynogards'ka, V. 2006. Heavy metals effects on forage crops yields and estimation of elements accumulation in plants as affected by soil. Sci. Total Environ. 354: 224–231.

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.01.007

[21] Harris, E.D. 2000. Cellular copper transport and metabolism. Annual Review of Nutritio. 20: 291-310.

[22] Hayat, Q., Hayat, S., Irfan, M. and Ahmad, A. 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environ. Exp. Bot. 68: 14-25.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.08.005

[23] Hayat, S., Fariduddin, Q., Ali, B. and Ahmad, A. 2005. Effect of salicylic acid on growth and enzyme activities of wheat seedlings. Acta Agron. Hung. 53: 433-437.

DOI: 10.1556/aagr.53.2005.4.9

[24] Hern´andez-Apaolaza, L., Gasc´o, A.M., Gasc´o, J.M. and Guerrero, F. 2005. Reuse of waste materials as growing media for ornamental plants. Journal of Bioresource Technology. 96: 125–131.

[25] Hoagland, D.R. 1948. Inorganic nutrition of plants. Chronica Botanica 226, (1944).

[26] Hou, W., Chen, X., Song, G., Wang, Q. and Chag, C. 2007. Effects of copper and cadmium on heavy metal polluted water body restoration by Duckweed (Lemna minor). Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 45: 62-69.

DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2006.12.005

[27] Hussein, M. M., Balba, L.K. and Gaballah, M. S. 2007. Salicylic acid and a possible role in the induction of chilling tolerance. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science. 3: 321-328.

[28] Khan, A.G., Kuek, C., Chaudhry, T.M., Khoo, C.S. and Hayes, W.J. 2000. Role of plants, mycorrhizae and phytochelators in heavy metal contaminated land remediation. Journal of Chemosphere. 41 (1-2): 197-207.

DOI: 10.1016/s0045-6535(99)00412-9

[29] Khan, W., Prithiviraj, B. and Smith, D.L. 2003. Photosynthetic response of corn and soybean to foliar application of salicylates. Journal of Plant Physiology. 160: 485-492.

DOI: 10.1078/0176-1617-00865

[30] Khodary, S.E.A. 2004. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt-stressed maize plants. International Journal of Agriculture. and Biology. 6: 5-8.

[31] Krantev, A., Yordanova, R., Janda, T., Szalai, G. and Popova, L. 2008. Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants. Journal of Plant Physiology. 165: 920-931.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2006.11.014

[32] Kumar, P. 1997. Effect of salicylic acid on flowering, pod formation and yield of pea. In Abst National Seminar on plant physiology for sustainable agriculture. March 19-21. IARI, New Dehli, p.69.

[33] Liu, J.N., Zhou, Q.X., Sun, T., Ma, L.Q. and Wang, S. 2008. Growth responses of three ornamental plants to Cd and Cd-Pb stress and their metal accumulation characteristics, Journal of Hazardous Materials. 151: 261-267.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.08.016

[34] Liu, J.N., Zhou, Q.X., Wang, X.F., Zhang, Q.R. and Sun, T. 2006. Potential of ornamental plant resources applied to contaminated soil remediation, in: J.A. Teixeira da Silva (Ed. ), Floriculture, Ornamental and Plant Biotechnology: Advances and Topical Issues, Global Science Books, London. 245–252.

DOI: 10.1007/s10535-007-0083-z

[35] Liu, L., Rui, T.Q., Zhi, Z.H., Da, L., Yao, X.X. and Ying, Y. 2009. Effect of copper ion concentration on physiological and biochemical characteristics of Loropetalum chinense Var. rubrum. Journal of Nonwood Forest Research. 1-13.

[36] Liu, W., Shu, W.S. and Lan, C.Y. 2004. Viola baoshanensis, a plant that hyperaccumalates cadmium. Chinese Science Bulletin. 49: 29–32.

[37] Lombardi, L. and Sebastiani, L. 2005. Copper toxicity in Prunus cerasifera: growth and antioxidant enzymes responses of in vitro grown plants. Journal of Plant Science. 168: 797–802.

DOI: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2004.10.012

[38] Ma, L.Q., Komar, K.M., Tu, C., Zhang, W., Cai, Y. and Kennelley, E.D. 2001. A fern that hyperaccumulates arsenic. Journal of Nature. 409: 579.

DOI: 10.1038/35054664

[39] Ma, Y.L. 2003. A function of home flowering plants in prevention and control of pollution. Journal of Chang Chun University. 13: 21–29.

[40] Market, B. 2003. Element concentration in ecosystems. International Institute of Advanced Ecological and Economic Studies. Zittau, Germany.

[41] Mattioni, C., Gabrielli, R., Vangronsveld, j. and Clihsters, H. 1997. Copper toxicity and activity. Journal of Plant Physiology. 150: 173-177.

[42] Mazaheri Tirani, M. and Manochehri-Kalantari, Kh. 2007. The effects of salicylic acid on some growth and biochemical parameters of Brassica napus L. under water stress. Isfahan University Journal. 28 (2): 55-66.

[43] McGrath, S.P. and Zhao, F.G. 2003. Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils. Journal of Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 14(3): 277–282.

DOI: 10.1016/s0958-1669(03)00060-0

[44] Meagher, R.B. 2000. Phytoremediation of toxic elemental and organic pollutants. Journal of Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 3: 153-162.

DOI: 10.1016/s1369-5266(99)00054-0

[45] Meers, E., Lamsal, S., Vervaeke, P., Hopgood, M., Lust, N. and Tack, F.M.G. 2005. Availability of heavy metals for uptake by Salix viminalis on a moderately contaminated dredged sediment disposal site. journal of Environmental Pollution. 137.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2004.12.019

[46] Metwally, A., Finkemeier, I., Georgi, M. and Dietz, K. 2003. Salicylic acid alleviates the cadmium toxicity in barley seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology. 132: 272-281.

DOI: 10.1104/pp.102.018457

[47] Pal, M., Szalai, G., Horvath, E., Janada, T. and Paldi, E. 2002. Effect of salicylic acid during heavy metal stress. Acta Biology. 46: 119-120.

[48] Raskin, I., Smith, R.D. and Salt, D.E. 1997. Phytoremediation of metals: using plants to remove pollutants from the environment. Journal of Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 8: 221-226.

DOI: 10.1016/s0958-1669(97)80106-1

[49] Reeves, R.D. and Baker, A.J. 2000. Metal- Accumulating Plants", Phytoremediation of toxic metals: Using plants to clean up the environment. Raskin, I. and Ensley, B. D. (ed. ) New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 193-229.

DOI: 10.1002/jctb.374

[50] Rossini, S., Mingorance, M.D., Valdes, B., Leidi, E.O. 2010. Uptake localization and physiological changes in response to copper excess in Erica andevalensis. Journal of Plant Soil. 328: 411-420.

DOI: 10.1007/s11104-009-0121-z

[51] Rugh, C.L., Bizily, S.P. and Meagher, R.B. 2000. Phytoreduction of environmental mercury pollution. In: Raskin, I. and Ensley, B.D., eds. Phytoremediation of toxic metals: using plants to clean- up the environment. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 151-170.

[52] Salt, D.E., Blaylock, M., Kuma, N.P.B.A., Dushenkov, V., Ensley, B.D., Chet, I. and Rasdinl, I. 1995. Phytoremediation: a novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants, Biotechnology. 13: 468–474.

DOI: 10.1038/nbt0595-468

[53] Senaranta, T., Teuchell, D., Bumm, E. and Dixon, K. 2002. Acetyl salicylic acid(asprin) and salicylic acid induce multiple stress tolerance in bean and tomatoplants. Plant Growth Regulation. 30: 157-161‏.

[54] Shengoil, T., Shaolin, P., Yugiongl, Z., Jinlin, H. and Jiang, Z. 2006. The effects of copper stresses on the growth and physiological characterics for Commelina communis. Chinese Agriculture Science Bulletin. 9-19.

[55] Shi, Q. and Zhu, Z. 2008. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on manganese toxicity, element contents and antioxidative system in cucumber. Journal of Environmental and Experimental Botany. 63: 317–326.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.11.003

[56] Shu, W.S., Ye, Z.H., Lan, C.Y., Zhang, Z.Q. and Wong, M.H. 2002. Lead, zinc and copper accumulation and tolerance in populations of Paspalum distichum and Cynodon dactylon. Journal of Environmental Pollution. 120(2): 445–453.

DOI: 10.1016/s0269-7491(02)00110-0

[57] Srivastava, S., Mishra, S., Tripathi, R., Dwivedi, S. and Gupta, D. 2006. Copper induced oxidative stress and responses of antioxidants and phyto-chelatins in Hydrilla verticillata. Journal of Aquatic Toxicology. 80(4): 405-415.

DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.10.006

[58] Tan, K.T. 1996. Soil Sampling, Preparation and Analysis, New York: Marcel Dekker Inc.

[59] Wang, D.H., Li, X.X., Su, Z.K. and Ren, H.X. 2009. The role of salicylic acid in response of two rice cultivars to chilling stress. Journal of Biology Plant 53: 545–552.

[60] Wang, H., Shan, X.Q., Wen, B., Zhang, S. and Wang, Z.J. 2004. Responses of antioxidative enzymes to accumulation of copper in a copper hyperaccumulator of Commoelina communis. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 47(2): 185–192.

DOI: 10.1007/s00244-004-2222-2

[61] Wang, X.F. 2005. Resource potential analysis of ornamentals applied in contaminated soil remediation, A dissertation in Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.

[62] Wei, L., Luo, C., Li, X. and Shen, Z. 2008. Copper accumulation and tolerance in Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and Sorghum sudanense L. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 55: 238- 246.

DOI: 10.1007/s00244-007-9114-1

[63] Yang, M.N., Wang, J., Wang, S.H. and Xu, L.L. 2003. Salicylic acid induced aluminium tolerance by modulation of citrate efflux from roots of Cassia tora L. Planta. 217(1): 168-174.

[64] Yanqun, Z., Yuan, L., Jianjun, C., Haiyan, C., Li, Q. and Schvartz, C. 2005. Hyperaccumulation of Pb, Zn and Cd in herbaceous grown on lead-zinc mining area in Yunnan, China. Internatinal Journal of Environment. 31(5): 755–762.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2005.02.004

[65] Yell Yang, Y. 2000. Identification of rice varieties with high tolerance or sensity to lead and characterization of the mechanism of to tolerance. Plant Physiol. 24: 1019- 1026.

DOI: 10.1104/pp.124.3.1019

[66] Yoon, J., Cao, X., Zhou, Q. and Ma, L.Q. 2006. Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Science of the Total Environment. 368(2-3): 456–464.

DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.01.016

[67] Zhou, Q.X. 2006. New researching progresses in pollution chemistry of soil environment and chemical remediation. Journal of Environmental Chemistry. 25; 257–265.

[68] Zhou, Q.X. and Song, Y.F. 2004. Principles and Methods of Contaminated Soil Remediation, Science Press, Beijing. ( Received 09 April 2015; accepted 22 April 2015 ).

Show More Hide