Biodiesel is becoming prominent among the alternatives to conventional petro-diesel due to economic, environmental and social factors. The quality of biodiesel is influenced by the nature of feedstock and the production processes employed. High amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) in the feedstock are known to be detrimental to the quality of biodiesel. In addition, oils with compounds containing hydroxyl groups possess high viscosity due to hydrogen bonding. American Standards and Testing Materials, (ASTM D 6751) recommends FFA content of not more than 0.5% in biodiesel and a viscosity of less than 6 mm2/s. In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss) biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physico-chemical parameters for their potential in biodiesel. The properties of Neem biodiesel were compared with Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and the fuel properties of diesel. Results showed that high amounts of FFA in oils produced low quality biodiesel while neutralized oils with low amounts of FFA produced high quality biodiesel. The quality of biodiesel from jatropha and castor oils was improved greatly by neutralising the crude oils.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy (Volume 47)
P. Bhandare and G.R. Naik, "Physico-Chemical Properties of Biodiesel Produced from Neem Oil", International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy, Vol. 47, pp. 40-48, 2015