Subscribe

Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

IJPPE > Volume 9 > Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Assessment of...
< Back to Volume

Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Assessment of Stem-Barks of Feretia apodanthera and Erythrophleum ivorense; Two West African Medicinal and Socio-Economic Trees

Full Text PDF

Abstract:

To assess the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of stem-barks of Feretia apodanthera and Erythrophleum ivorense extracts from powdered stem-barks of Feretia apodanthera and Erythrophleum ivorense were prepared following standard techniques of marceration, filtration and evaporation. Antibacterial activity was assayed against five pathogenic bacteria strains by the well-diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Cytotoxicity was measured by acute toxicity test on female albino rats and confirmed by cell viability assay using 3T3 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis was performed following standard techniques. The aqueous/alkaloid extracts of Feretia apodanthera and the ethanol extract of Erythrophleum ivorense were active against the five pathogenic bacteria strains tested (diameter zone of inhibition (DZI) ranging from 5.1 to 17.8mm). The Feretia apodanthera extracts were the most active against Staphylococcus aureus (DZI 17.1-17.8mm). The MIC and MBC of the extracts of both plants ranged from 0.094mg/ml to 48mg/ml and 0.047mg/ml to 48mg/ml respectively. Extracts of Feretia. apodanthera at 5000mg/Kg had no effect on the behavioural properties of rats and no death was observed. Incubation with 3T3 cell lines did not produce any cell toxicity up to 20mM and 5mM respectively for the aqueous extract and the alkaloid fraction. Incubation with higher concentrations produced cell death with IC50 of 39.41 ± 0.95mM and 38.45 ± 1.64mM respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of various constituents. The results show for the first time that stem-bark extracts of F. apodanthera and E. ivorense possess antibacterial activities against common human pathogenic bacteria and the low/lack of toxicity as demonstrated with the F. apodanthera extracts justify and confirm their safe ethnomedical uses.

Info:

Periodical:
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine (Volume 9)
Pages:
24-34
Citation:
D. L. Njimoh et al., "Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Assessment of Stem-Barks of Feretia apodanthera and Erythrophleum ivorense; Two West African Medicinal and Socio-Economic Trees", International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine, Vol. 9, pp. 24-34, 2018
Online since:
April 2018
Export:
Distribution:
References:

[1] S.D. Karou et al., Sub-Saharan Rubiaceae: A review of their traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities, Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 14(3) (2011) 149-169.

[2] WHO, Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance (Online). Available: http://www.who.int/csr/resources.

[3] D.L. Njimoh et al., Antimicrobial activities of a plethora of medicinal plant extracts and hydrolates against human pathogens and their potential to reverse antibiotic resistance, Int. J. Microbiol. 2015 (2015).

[4] M. Rosado-Vallado et al., Antimicrobial activity of Fabaceae species used in Yucatan traditional medicine, Fitoterapia. 71(5) (2000) 570-573.

[5] D.B. Santana et al., Activity of Fabaceae species extracts against fungi and Leishmania: vatacarpan as a novel potent anti-Candida agent, Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 25(4) (2015) 401-406.

[6] H.M. Burkil, The useful plants of West Tropical Africa, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1985-(2004).

[7] C.K. Ruffo, A. Birnie, B. Tengnas, Edible wild plants of Tanzania, Regional Land Management Unit, Nairobi, (2002).

[8] S. Paul et al., Plants used in traditional beekeeping in Burkina Faso, Open Journal of Ecology. 3(5) 2013) 354-358.

[9] H.H. Hansen, L. Sanou, B.M.I. Nacoulma, Tree leaves in the diet of free-ranging ruminants in three areas of Burkina Faso, Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 20(3) (2008).

[10] J.E. Adjanohoun et al., Traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia, in: Contribution to Ethnobotanical and Floristic Studies in Cameroon, Porto-Novo: Organization of African Unity Scientific, Technical and Research Commission, Centre National de Production de Manuels Scolaires, (1996).

[11] M. Arbonnier, Arbres, arbustes et lianes des zones sèches d'Afrique de l'Ouest, Paris: Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement/Muséeum national d'histoire naturelle/union mondiale pour la nature, (2000).

[12] E.J. Adjanohoun et al., Contributions aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Togo, Médecine Traditionnelle et Pharmacopée, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France, (1986).

[13] K. Inngjerdingen et al., An ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for wound healing in Dogonland, Mali, West Africa, J. Ethnopharmacol. 92 (2004) 233-244.

[14] D. Malgras, Arbres et arbustes guérisseurs des savanes maliennes, Editions Karthala, 22-24, boulevard Arago, 75013 Paris, (1992).

[15] H.S.N. Hussain, Y.Y. Karatela, Traditional medicinal plants used by Hausa tribe of Kano State of Nigeria, Int. J. Crude Drug Res. 27(4) (1989) 211-216.

[16] J.G. Adam, N. Echard, M. Lescot, Plantes médicinales Hausa de l'Ader (République du Niger), Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquée. 19(8) (1972) 259-399.

[17] J. Kerharo, J.G. Adam, Plantes médicinales et toxiques des Peuls et des Toucouleurs du Sénégal, Journal d'Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquée. 11(10) (1964) 384-444.

[18] A.S. Bâ, L'art vétérinaire en milieu traditionnel africain, Agence de Coopération culturelle et technique (ACCT), (1994).

[19] C. Ancolio, Antimalarial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from six plants used in traditional medicine in Mali, Phytotherapy Research. 16(7) (2002) 646-649.

[20] G.S. Taiwe et al., Anticonvulsant effects of iridoid glycosides fraction purified from Feretia apodanthera Del. (Rubiaceae) in experimental mice models of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, BMC Complement Altern. Med. 16 (2016) 285.

[21] G.S. Taiwe et al., Extracts of Feretia apodanthera Del. demonstrated anticonvulsant activities against seizures induced by chemicals and maximal electroshock, Epilepsy Research., 127(2016) 30-39.

[22] F. Arriaga et al., Structural Tali timber (Erythrophleum ivorense A. Chev., Erythrophleum suaveolens Brenan.): Assessment of strength and stiffness properties using visual and ultrasonic methods, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff. 64(5) (2006) 357-362.

[23] F.A. Armah et al., Erythroivorensin: A novel anti-inflammatory diterpene from the root-bark of Erythrophleum ivorense (A Chev.), Fitoterapia. 105 (2015) 37–42.

[24] H.G. Richter, M.J. Dallwitz, Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval [Online]. Available: http://delta-intkey.com.

[25] PROTA, Plant Resources for Tropical Africa [Online]. Available: www.prota4u.info/ Prota.org.

[26] O.K. Wakeel et al., Anticonvulsant and sedative activities of extracts of Erythrophleum ivorense stem bark in mice, Asian J. Biomed. Pharm. Sci. 04(28) (2014) 44-47.

[27] O.K. Wakeel et al., Evaluation of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Erythropleum ivorense stem bark in experimental animals, European J. Biomed. Pharm. Sci. 3(3) (2016) 84-89.

[28] L. Adu-Amoah et al., Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity studies of the methanolic extracts of Erythrophleum ivorense leaf and stem bark, Planta Med. 79 (2013).

[29] ICS-UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Centre for Science and High Technology), Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and aromatic Plants, (2008).

[30] N.N. Azwanida, A Review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength and limitation, Med. Aromat. Plants. 4 (2015) 196.

[31] NCCLS, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing/SC3, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Villanova, Pa, USA, 3rd edition, (1990).

[32] T. Hussain et al., Biochemical characterization and identification of bacterial strains isolated from drinking water sources of Kohat, Pakistan, Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 7(16) (2013) 1579-1590.

[33] J.H. Jorgensen, M.J. Ferraro, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: a review of general principles and contemporary practices, Clin. Infect. Dis. 49(11) (2009) 1749-1755.

[34] D. Lorke, A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing, Arch. Toxicol. 54(4) (1983) 275-287.

[35] T.L. Riss et al., Cell Viability Assays, Assay Guidance Manual, (2016).

[36] T. Mohammed, C. Teshale, Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f) O. Kuntze, J. Intercult. Ethnopharmacol. 1(1) (2012) 30-34.

[37] A. Debella, Preliminary screening techniques of secondary metabolites, in: Manual for Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants, Ethiopian Department of Drug Research, Ethiopian Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2002, pp.38-57.

[38] M. Tumbarello et al., ESBL-producing multidrug-resistant Providencia stuartii infections in a university hospital, J Antimicrob Chemother. 53(2) (2004) 277-282.

[39] WHO, Global Action plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/antimicrobial-resistance/global-action-plan/en.

[40] L. Adu-Amoah et al., Toxicity assessment of Erythrophleum ivorense and Parquetina nigrescens, Toxicology Reports. 1 (2014) 411-420.

[41] S.O. Cédric et al., Phytochemical screening, evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Erythrophleum ivorense A. Chev (Leguminosae) and Megaphrynium macrostachyum Benth (Marantaceae), medicinal plants from Gabon, Int. J. Biosci. 8(6) (2016).

[42] G.S. Taiwe et al., Effects of a lyophilized aqueous extract of Feretia apodanthera Del. (Rubiaceae) on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in mice, Epilepsy & Behavior. 43 (2015) 100-108.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.