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Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Studies of an Ethanol/Water Extract of Euphorbia scordifolia Jacq (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice and in Rats

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Abstract:

Euphorbia scordifolia is used in Cameroon as galactagogue and in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. This work was undertaken to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxicities of ethanol/water extract of Euphorbia scordifolia (EWEs). Acute toxicity study was carried out by oral administration of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg body weight of EWEs to mice in the respective groups. Subchronic toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of the extract at daily doses of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg body weight to another group of rats for 28 days, while rats in the control group received 10 mL/kg body weight of distilled water. Following the 28-day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. In the acute toxicity study, EWEs was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. The subchronic treatment with EWEs did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. Biochemical analysis did not show any significant differences in any of the parameters examined in males or females. Hematological analysis showed a significant decrease (P<0.01) in white blood cells and red blood cells in males treated with 100 mg/kg bw and a significant (P<0.01) decrease in hemoglobin and hemoglobin hematocrit in all treated females. Necropsy and histopathological examination revealed some slight hepatic necrosis with the dose 100 mg/kg bw. It would be necessary to use the ethanol/water extract for short periods (<4 weeks). Thus, the plant, at least its ethanol/water extract, could be considered with a wide margin of safety for short-term oral use.

Info:

Periodical:
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine (Volume 7)
Pages:
18-29
DOI:
10.18052/www.scipress.com/IJPPE.7.18
Citation:
M. A. Tagne Fokam et al., "Acute and Subchronic Oral Toxicity Studies of an Ethanol/Water Extract of Euphorbia scordifolia Jacq (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice and in Rats", International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine, Vol. 7, pp. 18-29, 2017
Online since:
Jun 2017
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