Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

IJPPE > IJPPE Volume 2 > Effect of Two Natural Antioxidant Intervention on...
< Back to Volume

Effect of Two Natural Antioxidant Intervention on Plasma Vitamin C, E, and β-Carotene Concentrations of Apparently Healthy Adults in Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

Full Text PDF


Immunologic functions particularly cell-mediated immunity declines with age, contributing to the increased incidence of infectious diseases in the elderly. The study looked at vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene levels in plasma of 150 healthy adults of 96 men and 54 women aged between 30 and 74 years. The subjects were randomly grouped into three at baseline for further dietary studies, The antioxidant dietary supplements were either 1 capsule per day of antioxidant nutraceutical (Forever living product) (containing vitamin E 10 mg, vitamin C 60mg and β-carotene 2000 mcg of vitamin A, or cheap affordable indigenous antioxidant functional foods of equivalent vitamin composition of oranges, carrots, and soybean or bottled water, and the first dose was dispensed and followed up for six months. The result showed that the vit C, E and β-carotene concentration of antioxidant treated groups were positively influenced than the placebo group (Grp 1 (AT-P) 6m. Grp 3 (AT-F) 6m was affected more positively than the antioxidant Grp 2 (AT-N) 6m. Vitamin C, E, and β-carotene concentrations of the elderly are beyond reference/normal range of blood plasma. Plasma Vitamin C and β-carotene concentration of the female was higher than the male. The vitamin E concentration in blood plasma of male is higher compare to female.


International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine (Volume 2)
C. C. Nweze and M. Solomon, "Effect of Two Natural Antioxidant Intervention on Plasma Vitamin C, E, and β-Carotene Concentrations of Apparently Healthy Adults in Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria", International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine, Vol. 2, pp. 72-78, 2016
Online since:
May 2016

[1] Knight, J., Free radicals their history and current status in aging and disease. Ann Clin Lab Sci., 28: pp.331-346 (1998).

[2] Shi, H.L., et al., Comparative study on dynamics of antioxidative action of α-tocopheryl hydroquinone, ubiquinol and α-tocopherol, against lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Biol Med, 27: pp.334-346 (1999).

[3] Bland, J.S., Phytonutrition, pyhtotherapy and phytopharmacology. Altern Ther Health Med., 2: pp.73-76 (1996).

[4] Berger, M.M., and A. Shenkin, Vitamins and trace elements: Practical aspects of supplementation. Journal of Nutrition. 22: pp.952-955 (2006).

[5] Lopez-Varela, S., Gonzαlez-Gross, M., and A. Marcos, Functional foods and the immune system: A review. European Journal of Clinical nutrition, 56: pp.529-540 (2002).

[6] Diplock, A.T., Antioxidants and Free radical Scavangers In: Free radical damage and its control. Rice Evans, C.A. and R.H. Burdon (eds). Elsevier Science, UK. pp.113-129 (1994).

[7] Mates, J.M., N. Perez-Gomez, and I.N. De Castro, Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases. Journal of Clinical Biochememistry, 32: pp.595-603 (1999).

[8] Ballali, S., and F. Lanciai, Functional food and diabetes: a natural way in diabetes prevention. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 63(1): pp.51-61 (2013).

[9] Siegel, P.M. and J. Massague, Cytostate and apoptotic activities of TGF- beta in homeostatis and cancer. Pubmed Nat. Rev Cancer, 3: pp.807-821 (2003).

[10] Anderson, J., C.L. Salzer, and J.P. Kumar, Regulation of the retinal determination gene dachshund in the embryonic head and developing eye of drosophilla. Journal of Developmental Biology, 297(2): pp.536-549 (2006).

[11] Meydani, S.N., M. Meydani, and J.B. Blumberg, Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy subjects: 8 randomisrd controlled trial. JAMA, 227: pp.1380-1386 (1997).

[12] Saloneu, R.M., Six year effect of combined vitamin C, E, and β- carotene supplementation on artheriosclerotic progression. Circulation, 1: pp.947-953 (2003).

[13] Gardner, E.M., et al., The age-associated decline in immune function of healthy individuals is not related to changes in plasma concentrations of β-carotene, retinol, α-tocopherol or zinc, Mechanism in Ageing. Journal of clinical Biochemistry, 94: 55-69 (1997).

[14] Stephen, L.S., M.C. Lathan, and E.A. Ottesen, Malnutrition and parasitic infections. International Journal of Parasitology, 121: pp.532-538 (2000).

[15] Mahomed, K., Iron supplementation in pregnancy. Rev, 2: pp.11-17 (2000).

[16] Zhao, B., et al., Simultaneous determination of vitamins C, E and b-carotene in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiodes-array detection. Journal of pharmaceutical science, 30: pp.72-87 (2004).

[17] Stardam, E.R., Role of oxidant species in aging. Curr. Med. Chem., 11: pp.1105-1112 (2004).

[18] Smirnoff, N., L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis. Vitam Horm, 61: 241-266 (2001).

[19] Sies, H. and W. Stahl, Vitamins E, C, and β- carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants. American Journal of clinical Nutrition, 62: pp. 1315s-1321s (1995).

[20] Soko, l R.J., Vitamin E deficiency and neurologic diseases. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 8: pp.351-373 (1988).

[21] Meydani, S.N., Barklung, M.P. and S. Siu, Vitamin E supplementation enhancers' cell-mediated immunity in healthy elderly subjects. American Journal of. Clinical Nutrition, 52: pp.557-563 (1990).

[22] Ventura, M.T., In vitro vitamin E and β-carotene, selenium supplementation improves neutrophil-mediated functions and monocyte chemoattractant proteins-1 production in the elderly. Cytobios, 77: pp.225-232 (1994).

Show More Hide
Cited By:

[1] C. Chibuzo, A. Hauwa, A. Zubairu, "Comparative Study on Phytochemical Composition and In Vitro Radical Scavenging Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Landolphia lanceolata and Nutraceutical-C24/7", International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine, Vol. 10, p. 36, 2018