Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

IJPPE > IJPPE Volume 11 > Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Inflammatory...
< Back to Volume

Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Bauhinia monandra in Animal Models

Full Text PDF


The leaves of Bauhinia monandra prepared as poultices are used in many Brazilian tribes and some Nigerian communities to relieve swelling and pains, arthritis, diabetes among other ailments. These folkloric claimed benefits inspired this study in which topical and systemic anti-inflammatory activities of a methanol extract of B. monandra leaves (MEBmL) was assessed in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activities of B. monandra were determined by egg albumin-induced (systemic) paw edema in rats, and xylene-induced (topical) ear edema in mice. Treatment of rats with MEBmL at different concentration (200 and 400 mg/kg) led to significant (p<0,05) reduction (31.0% and 28.0% respectively) of the egg albumin-induced paw edema. Topical application of mice ear with MEBmL (50, 100 mg/kg) also significantly (p<0.05) reduced (39.50% and 41.87% respectively) xylene-induced ear edema. Based on the findings of the study, B. monandra has a promising therapeutic potential with its anti-inflammatory activities as associated with folkloric use of the plant.


International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine (Volume 11)
A. N. Okorie and K. M. Nworie, "Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Bauhinia monandra in Animal Models", International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine, Vol. 11, pp. 7-16, 2018
Online since:
October 2018

[1] R.K. Salazar, S.S. Purewal, Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and DNA damage protection of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivars of North Indian region, Food Meas. 11 (2017) 126–133.


[2] R.W.J. Keay, D.P. Stanfield, C.F.A. Onochie, Trees of Nigeria, Clarendo Press, Oxford, UK, 1989, pp.74-78.

[3] K.F. Connor, Bauhinia monandra, in: Tropical tree seed manual. Vozzo, J. A. (Eds.), US, USDA Forest Service, Washington DC, 2002, 721, pp.234-236.

[4] Ferrero-Milliani et al., Chronic inflammation: importance of NOD2 and NALP3 in interleukin-1beta generation, Clin Exp Immunol. 147 (2007) 227-235.

[5] G.C. Machado et al., Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for spinal pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 76 (2017) 1269-1278.


[6] T.E. Towheed et al., Acetaminophen for osteoarthritis, Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 1 (2006) CD004257.

[7] A. Rostom et al., Prevention of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulcers, Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 4 (2002) CD002296.

[8] A. Lee et al., Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on postoperative renal function in adults with normal renal function, Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2 (2007) CD002765.


[9] A.A Anosike, O. Obidoa, L.U.S. Ezeanyika, The anti-inflammatory activity of garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum) on egg albumin-induced edema and granuloma tissue formation in rats, Pac. J. Trop. Med. (2012) 62-66.


[10] L.M McCune, T. Johns, Antioxidant activity in medicinal plants associated with the symptoms of diabetics mellitus used by the Indegenous people of the North American boreal forest, J. Ethnopharmacol. 82 (2002) 197-205.


[11] K.L. Da Silva et al., Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation of Bauhinia forficate Link (Leguminosae), Z. Naturforsch. C. 55 (2000) 478-480.

[12] D.K. Hansworth, Traditional medicinal plants of Rarotonga, Cook Islands Part I, Int. J. Crude Drug Res. 28 (1990) 209-218.


[13] B.G. Mendes, M.J. Machado, M. Falkenberg, Triagem de glicolipids em plantas medicinais, Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 16 (2006) 568-575.


[14] National Research Council (US) Committee. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th Ed, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, (2011).

[15] V. Ramamurthy, M. Sathiyadevi, Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract of Indigofera trita Linn, J. Mol. Histol. Med. Physiol. 2 (2017) 122.


[16] Y. Vaghasiya, R. Dave, S. Chanda, Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants from Western region of India, Research Journal of Medicinal Plants. 5 (2011) 567-576.


[17] OECD, OECD Guidelines for Acute Toxicity of Chemicals. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, France, 2001, No. 420.

[18] P.A. Akah, A. Nwanbie, Evaluation of Nigerian traditional medicines plants used for rheumatic (inflammatory) disorder, J. Ethnopharmacol. 42 (1994) 179-182.


[19] A. Tjolsen et al., The formalin test: An evaluation of the method, Pain. 51 (1992) 5-17.

[20] C.S. Nworu et al., Extracts of Ficus exasperata leaf inhibit topical and systemic inflammation in rodents and suppress LPS-induced expression of mediators of inflammation in macrophages, Journal of Immunotoxicology. 10 (2013) 302-310.


[21] A. Bertolini, A. Ottani, M. Sandrini, Dual acting anti- inflammatory drugs: A reappraisal, Pharmacol. Res. 44 (2001) 437–450.


[22] S. Basu, B.E. Hazra, Evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity, in vitro and ex vivo, of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in inflammatory diseases, Phytother. Res. 20 (2006) 896–900.


[23] The Wealth of India, Raw Material. 11 (1988) 5.

[24] A.V.S.S. Sammbamurthy, Dictionary of medicinal plants, CBS Publishers & Distributors, (2006).

[25] K.R. Kirtikar, B.D. Basu, Indian medicinal plant text. 2 (2006) 892-894.

[26] J.K.L. Campos et al., Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Bauhinia monandra leaf lecithin, Biochimie Open. (2016) 62-68.

[27] S.B. Dhull, P. Kaur, S.S. Purewal, Phytochemical analysis, phenolic compounds, condensed tannin content and antioxidant potential in Marwa (Origanum majorana) seed extracts, Resource Efficient Technologies. 2 (2016) 168-174.


[28] P. Kaur et al., Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) seeds: in vitro DNA damage protection, bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential, Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 12 (2018) 1530-1538.


[29] H.L. Yu et al., Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 6-(4-chlorophenoxy)-terazolo[5,1-a]phthalazine in mice, Pharmacol. Rep. 64 (2012) 1155-1165.

[30] A.L.A.P. Gil et al., Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanolic extract of Boougainvilla xbuttiana, J. Ethnopharmacol. 144 (2012) 712-719.

[31] H.S. Kang, J.Y. Lee, C.J. Kim, Anti-inflammatory activity of arctigenin from Forsythiae fructus, J. Ethnopharmacol. 166 (2008) 305-310.

[32] S. Solomon, N. Muruganathan, M.M. Senthamilselvi, Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory activity of Bauhinia tomentosa (Flowers), Indo Am. J. Pharm. Res. 6 (2016) 4321-4326.

[33] D.L. Ajaghaku et al., Mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extract and fractions of Milletia aboensis, Int. Res. J. Pharm. 4 (2013) 54-59.

[34] E.E. Hisam et al., Antiulcer Activity of the chloroform extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf, Pharm. Biol. 50 (2012) 1498-1507.

[35] N. Kannan, K.M. Sakthivel, C. Guruvayoorappan, Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn against cisplatin-induced renal damage, J Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 35 (2016) 99-107.


[36] I.B. Calou et al., Topically applied diterpenoids from Egletes viscosa (Asteraceae) attenuate dermal inflammation in mouse ear induced by tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and oxazolone, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 31 (2008) 1511-1516.


[37] D.O. Salinas-Sánchez et al., A. Anti-inflammatory activity of hautriwaic acid isolated from Dodonaea viscosa leaves, Molecules. 17 (2012) 4292-4299.


[38] A. Chakraborty, A.H. Brantner, Study of alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica Nees on their anti-inflammatory activity, Phytother. Res. 15 (2001) 532–534.


[39] Y.C. Chen et al., Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors and lipopolysaccharide induced inducible NOS and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expressions by rutin, quercetin, and quercetin pentaacetate in RAW 264.7 macrophages, J. Cell. Biochem. 82 (2001).


[40] S. Kumar, V. Kumar, O.M. Prakash, Pharmacognostic study and anti-inflammatory activity of Callistemon lanceolatus leaf, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 1 (2011) 177-181.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.