Paper Titles in Periodical
International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine
Volume 1


Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

IJPPE > Volume 1 > In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Evaluation of...
< Back to Volume

In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Evaluation of Crude Extracts of Dioscorea dumetorum and Psidium guajava Leaves in the Control of Storage Rot of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs

Full Text PDF


The antifungal activity of the ethanolic crude leaf extracts of Dioseorea dumetorum and Psidium quajava on the fungal pathogens isolated from infected onion bulbs were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The pathogens were Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. For the in vitro antifungal assay, various concentrations of the extracts ranging from 10g/200ml, 20g/200ml, 30g/200ml, 40g/200ml and 50g/200ml were separately added to PDA media. The fungal pathogens were separately inoculated into the media and incubated for seven days. For the in vivo assay, healthy onion bulbs were properly surface sterilized using 99% ethanol and sodium hypochlorite (bleach). The sterile onion bulbs were then sprayed with the extracts at different concentrations two hours prior to inoculation with the fungal pathogens. Each onion bulb after being treated with different concentration of the extracts of 10g/200ml, 20g/200ml, 30g/200ml, 40g/200ml and 50g/200ml were dipped into beakers containing dissolved spore of each pathogen and incubated for seven days. Results of the in vitro antifungal assay shows that at 10g/200ml – 50g/200ml concentration, ethanolic leaf extracts of D. dumetorum and P. guajava completely inhibited the radial growth of A. niger and R. stolonifer after seven days observation period. For the in vivo antifungal assay, results shows that the extracts had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the mycelial growth of the fungal pathogens at all the different concentrations tested. Pathogen growth inhibition was most effective at 30g/200ml, 40g/200ml and 50g/200ml concentrations. The inhibitory action of the extracts increased/decreased with a corresponding increase/decrease in the concentration of the plant extracts. Ethanolic extracts of D. dumetorum was found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of the fungal pathogens than P. guajava extracts.


International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine (Volume 1)
E. N. Okey et al., "In Vitro and In Vivo Biological Evaluation of Crude Extracts of Dioscorea dumetorum and Psidium guajava Leaves in the Control of Storage Rot of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Bulbs", International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine, Vol. 1, pp. 81-92, 2015
Online since:
Dec 2015

Adebayo, L. O. and Diyaolu, S. A. (2003). Mycology and spoilage of cashew nuts. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2: 369-373.

Amadioha, A. C. and Obi, V. I. (1999). Control of Anthracnose diseases of cowpea by Cymbopogon Cunitus and Ocimum gratissimum. Acto phytopathology and Entmology, 85: 89.

Amadioha, A. C. (2000). Fungitoxic effects of some leaf extracts against Rhizopus Oryzae causing tuber rot of potato. Archives of phytopatholpflanzo, 34: 1-9.

Amienyo, C. A. and Ataga, A. E. (2006). Post-harvest fungal diseases of sweet potato (lpomoea batata L. ) tubers sold in selected markets in River State. Nigeria Science of Africa, 5(2): 95-98.

Amienyo, C. A. and Ataga, A. E. (2007). Antifungal activity of selected plants against phytopathogenic fungi, Aspergillus niger. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 2(4): 87-90.

Barnett, H. L. and Hunter, B. B. (1998). Illustrated genera of imperfect fungi 4th edition. St. Paul Minesota: Aps Press. P. 32.

Bowers, J. H. and Locke, J. C. (2004). Effect of formulated plant extracts and oils on population density of phytophthora nicotianae in soil and control of phytophthora blight in the green house. Plant Diseases, 88: 11-16.

Brewster, J. L. (1999). Onions and other vegetable Alliums (1st ed). CAB International, p.16.

Brickell, C. (2002). The Encyclopedia of Gardening. The Royal Horticultural society, Dorling Kindersley, P. 345.

Conant, P. (2006). Onion-culinary foundation and medicine,. The Epicurean Table. Retrieved 2013-04-02.

Cushine, T. P. and Lamb, A. J. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 26: 343-356.

Dugan, F. M. (2006). The identification of fungi. St. Paul Minnesota: Aps Press.

Faridt, A. M., Khatequzzaman, K. M., Nazrallslam, M. D., Anam, M. K. and Tashasinw, I. M. (2002). Effect of plant extracts against Bipolaris oryzae of rice under in-vitro conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(4): 442-445.

Fern, K. A. (2011). Allium cepa L. Plants for A Future. Retrieved 2013-03-22.

Fritsch, R. M. and Friesen, N. (2002). Chapter 1: Evolution, Domestication and Taxonomy., In Rabinowitch, H. D. and Curah, L. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. UK. CABI Publishing. Pp 20-21. ISBN 9780 863189791.

Jauron, R. (2009). Harvesting and Storing Onions,. Howa State University Extension, Retrieved 2013-03-28.

Joon, T. L., Dong, W. B., Seun, H. P., Chang, K. S., Youn, S. K. and Hee, K. K. (2001). Occurrence and biological control of post harvest decay in onion caused by fungi. Journal of Plantpathol, 17: 141-148.

Klaas, M. and Friesen, N. (1998). Origin of some vegetatively progated Allium crops studied with RAPD and GISH,. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 45(6): 511.

Lee, S. H., Chang, K. S., Su, M. S., Huang, Y. S. and Jang, H. D. (2007). Effects of some Chinese medicinal plant extracts of five different fungi. Food Control, 18: 1547-1550.

Mower, C. (2013). The difference between yellow, white and red onions,. The Cooking Dish. Retrieved 2013-03-24.

Okigbo, R. N. (2009). Variation in phytochemical properties of selected fungicidal aqueous extract of some plant leaves in Kogi State, Nigeria. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(3): 407-409.

Okigbo R. N. and Nmeka I. A. (2005). Control of yam tuber rot with leaf extracts of Xylopia aethiopicaand zingiber officinale. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(8): 804-807.

Okuwu, D. E. and Igara, E. C. (2011). Isolation, characterization and antibacterial activity screening of alkaloid from Datura metel leaves. Der Chaemica Sinica, 2(2), 261-267.

Ole, H., Torben, L., Lars, P. C., Ulla, K., Nazmul, H. and Shakuntala, H. A. (2004). Contents of iron zinc and B-carotene is commonly consumed vegetables. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 17: 587-597.

Olsson, M. E., Gustavsson, K. E. and Vagen, I. M. (2010).

Ozer,N. and Koycu, N. D. (2004). Seed-borne fungal diseases of onion and their control. Dordrecht, Academic Publishers.

Poppe, L., Vanhoutte, S. and Hopte, M. (2003). Modes of action of pantoea agglomerans CPA-2, an antagonist of postharvest pathogens on fruits. European Journal of Plant Pathologgy, 109: 963-973.

Rai, N. and Yadar, D. S. (2005). Advantage in vegetable production. New Delhi, Research Book Centre, Ch. 2: 2.

Santas, J., Almajano, M. P. and Carbo, R. (2010). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of crude onion (Allium cepa L. ) extracts. International Journal of Food Science Technology, 45: 403-409.

Savon, C. (2006). Onion bulb formation is strongly linked with day length,. Oregon State University Extension Service. Retrieved 2013-09-14.

Shehu, K. and Muhammad, V. (2011). Fungi associated with storage rots of onion bulbs in Sokoto, Nigeria. International Journal of Modern Botany, 1(1): 1-3.

Srinivasan, R. and Shanmugam, V. (2006). Post-harvest management of black mould rot of onion. Indian Journal of phytopathology, 59: 87-93.

Slimestad, R., Fossen, T. and Vagen, I. M. (2007). Onion, a source of unique dietary flavonoid,. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(22): 6787-6793.

Sutton, D. A., Forthercill, A. W. and Rinaldi, M. G. (1998). Guide to clinically significant fungi. Baltnore: William and Wilkins. 321p.

Varastegui, A., Verde, J., Garcia, S., Heredia, N., Oranday, A. and Rivas, C. (2008). Species of agave with antimicrobial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria and fungi. World Microbiology and Biotechnology Journal, 24: 1249-1252.

Wane, A. H. and Taskeen, U. N. (2011). Management of block mould rot of onion. Mycopath, 9(1): 43-49.

Yang, J., Meyers, K. J., Vanbertteide, J. and Liu, R. H. (2004). Varietal differences in phenol content, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of onion,. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(22): 6787-6793.

Zohary, D. and Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication of plants in the old world. (3 rd ed. ). Oxford University Press. P. 198. ISBN 0-19-850357-1.

Show More Hide