Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

IJET > IJET Volume 8 > A Study on Mechanical Behaviour of Surface...
< Back to Volume

A Study on Mechanical Behaviour of Surface Modified Rice Husk/Polypropylene Composite Using Sodium Hydroxide

Full Text PDF


There are many studies has been done on the natural fibers of cellulose contents as a reinforcing material. Yet, the main challenge in the research of natural fiber is the poor compatibility. In this study, the surface modification techniques were performed on granular size rice husk (RH) such as untreated, boiled and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treated reinforced polypropylene (PP) was consolidated to improve the mechanical properties. An internal mixer machine is set for four different composites compositions and the samples produced by hot press machine. The specimens were analyzed by different techniques such as hardness test, impact test, tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study shown that, the presence of NaOH indicates higher young modulus and hardness test value compared to boiled treated and untreated RH. While for the impact strength and tensile strength value shows untreated, boiled treated and NaOH treated PP/RH composite decreased when fiber loading increased. The morphological analysis was conducted to determine the effects of natural fiber bonding between the matrix materials after boiling and NaOH treatments for mechanical testing broken specimens.


International Journal of Engineering and Technologies (Volume 8)
K. Rassiah and A. Ali, "A Study on Mechanical Behaviour of Surface Modified Rice Husk/Polypropylene Composite Using Sodium Hydroxide", International Journal of Engineering and Technologies, Vol. 8, pp. 72-82, 2016
Online since:
August 2016

[1] M.A. Maleque, A. Atiqah, Development and characterization of coir fibre reinforced composite brake friction materials, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 38(11) (2013) 3191-3199.

[2] K. Rassiah, M.M. H Megat Ahmad, Bamboo, thermoplastic, thermosets, and their composites: a Review, Appl Mech Mater. 330 (2013) 53-61.

[3] K. Rassiah, M.M. H Megat Ahmad, Aidy Ali, Mechanical Properties of Laminated Bamboo Strips From Gigantochloa Scortechinii / Polyester Composite, Materials and Design. . 57 (2014) 551-559.

[4] S. Panthapulakkal, M. Sain, S. Law, Effect of Coupling Agents on Rice Husk Filled HDPE Extruded Profiles, Polymer International. 54(1) (2005) 137-142.

[5] A.A. Ramezanianpour, M. Mahdikhani, Gh. Ahmadibeni, The Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Mechanical Properties and Durability of Sustainable Concretes, International Journal of Civil Engineering. 7(2) (2009) 83-91.

[6] G.A. Akeke, M.E. Ephraim, I.Z.S. Akobo, J.O. Ukpata, Structural Properties of Rice Husk Ash Concrete, International Journal of Engineering. 3(3) (2013) 57-62.

[7] T.U. Ganiron Jr, Effects of Rice Hush as Substitute for Fine Aggregate in Concrete Mixture, International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology. 58 (2013) 29-40.

[8] M. Sarkar, M. Asaduzzaman, A.L. Das, M.O. Hannan, M.I. Shams, "Mechanical Properties and Dimensional Stability of Cement Bonded Particleboard from Rice Husk and Sawdust, Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 47(3) (2012).

[9] S.D. Nagrale, H. Hajare, P.R. Modak, Utilization of Rice Husk Ash, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications. 2(4) (2012) 1-5.

[10] S. Demis, J. G. Tapali, V. G. Papadakis, Plant Design and Economics of Rice Husk Ash Exploitation as a Pozzolanic Material, Waste and Biomass Valorization. 6(5) (2015) 843-853.

[11] S.H. Sathawane, V.S. Vairagade, K. S Kene, Combine Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Fly Ash on Concrete by 30% Cement Replacement, Procedia Engineering. 51 (2013) 35-44.

[12] A.K. Parande et al., Utilization of Agroresidual Waste in Effective Blending in Portland Cement, Civil Engineering.  (2011) 1-12.

[13] A. A. Yussuf, I. Massoumi, A. Hassan, Comparison of Polylactic Acid/Kenaf and Polylactic Acid/Rise Husk Composites: The Influence of the Natural Fibers on the Mechanical, Thermal and Biodegradability Properties, Journal of Polymers and the Environment. 18 (2010).

[14] K. Rassiah, P. Balakrishnan, Studies on Biodegradability of Rice Husk/ E-Glass/Polypropylene Hybrid Composites, Journal of Global Engineers and Technologists Review. 4(3) (2014) 1-5.

[15] K. Rassiah, P. Balakrishnan, M.A. Asrudin, Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on the Biodegradability Studies of Rice Husk/E-Glass/Polypropylene Hybrid Composites, Malaysia Polymer International Conference, (2013).

[16] K. Rassiah, P. Balakrishnan, M. Nazarudin, Improving Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk/ Polypropylene Composites Using Sodium Hydroxide, National Conference on Engineering Technology. 1(2) (2013) 229-234.

[17] R. Santiagoo, H. Ismail, K. Hussin, Mechanical Properties, Water Absorption, and Swelling Behaviour of Rice Husk Powder Filled Polypropylene/ Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (PP/NBRr/ RHP) Biocomposites Using Silane as a Coupling Agent, Peer-Reviewed Bio Resourced. 6 (4) (2011).

[18] M.R. Nouri et al., Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Chopped Rice Husk Filled Polypropylene Composites, Iranian Polymer Journal. 15(9) (2006) 757-766.

[19] N.A. Maziad, D.E. EL Nashar, E. M. Sadek, The Effects of a Silane Coupling Agent on Properties of Rice Husk-Filled Maleic Acid Anhydride Compatibilized Natural Rubber/Low-Density Polyethylene Blend, Journal of Material Science. 44(10) (2009).

[20] V. Ramasamy, Compressive Strength and Durability Properties of Rice Husk Ash Concrete, Journal of Civil Engineering. 16(1) (2012) 93-102.

[21] K. Ahmed et al., An Assessment of Rice Husk Ash Modified, Marble Sludge Loaded Natural Rubber Hybrid Composites, Journal of Materials and Environmental Science. 4(2) (2013) 205-216.

[22] M.S. Jamil, I. Ahmad, I. Abdullah, Effects of Rice Husk Filler on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Liquid Natural Rubber Compatibilized High-Density Polyethylene/Natural Rubber Blends, Journal of Polymer Research. 13(4) (2006) 315-321.

[23] G.A. Habeeb, M. M. Fayyadh, Rice Husk Ash Concrete: The Effect of RHA Average Particle Size on Mechanical Properties and Drying Shrinkage, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 3(3) (2009) 1616-1622.

[24] N. Petchwattana, S. Covavisaruch, S. Chanakul, Mechanical Properties, Thermal Degradation and Natural Weathering of High Density Polyethylene/Rice Hull Composites Compatibilized with Maleic Anhydride Grafted Polyethylene, Journal of Polymer Research. 19(7) (2012).

[25] I. Ahmad, M.S.M. Jamil, I. Abdullah, Pengisian Sekám Padi dan Tanah Liât ke Dalam Matriks Polietilena Berketumpatan Tinggi-Getah Asli-Getah Asii Cecair, Sains Malaysiana. 38(3) (2009) 381-386.

[26] M. Mustapa, Azman Hassan, A. Rahmat, Preliminary Study on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Rice Husk Composites, Symposium Polimer Kebangsaan. (2005) 23-24.

[27] S.M.L. Rosa et al., Studies on the Properties of Rice-Husk-Filled-PP Composites: Effect of Maleated PP, Materials Research. 12(3) (2009) 333-338.

[28] H.S. Yang et al., Rice-Husk Flour Filled Polypropylene Composites; Mechanical and Morphological Study, Composite Structures. 63(3) (2004) 305-312.

[29] H. Ismail, J. M. Nizam, H.P.S. Abdul Khalil, The Effect of a Compatibilizer on the Mechanical Properties and Mass Swell of White Rice Husk Ash Filled Natural Rubber/Linear Low Density Polyethylene Blends, Polymer Testing. 20(2) (2001)125-133.

[30] K.K. Alaneme et al., Fabrication Characteristics and Mechanical Behaviour of Rice Husk Ash-Alumina Reinforced Al-Mg-Si alloy Matrix Hybrid Composites, Journal of materials research and technology. 2(1) (2013) 60-67.

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.