Subscribe to our Newsletter and get informed about new publication regulary and special discounts for subscribers!

IJET > IJET Volume 17 > Numerical Investigation of Façade and Floor...
< Back to Volume

Numerical Investigation of Façade and Floor Glazing Systems

Full Text PDF


The use of point-supported systems in glass façades and floors has become widespread due to their excellent structural properties. The combination of glass and metal, frequently found in modern architectural norms and expressions, has highlighted the role of such systems and the need for constant optimization of their design. This research paper aims to examine the influence of modifying several geometrical parameters such as the thickness and the weight of the structural spider connectors, the arm-core ratio of the spider, the thickness of the glass panel and the spider arm cavities on the structural performance of a spider connector produced by one of the market-leading manufacturers. Therefore, a parametric finite element analysis is performed, where four alternative versions of the spider are constructed, in addition to the reference version, using ANSYS software program. The numerical model of the reference spider is verified against experimental data from the manufacturer of the structural spider connector. A total number of twelve case studies that consist of different combinations of spiders and glass’ thickness are examined, five for the façade and seven for the floor glazing system. The focus of the numerical investigation is placed on the spider itself and the results of the parametric finite element analysis are presented and discussed. The effectiveness of having core cavities and hollowed-out arms in spiders is proven. The use of stronger but heavier spiders is an acceptable alternative if they are connected to larger glass panels that results in reducing the number of spiders without increasing significantly the total weight of the glazing system.


International Journal of Engineering and Technologies (Volume 17)
T. Tsalkatidis and M. Moastuen, "Numerical Investigation of Façade and Floor Glazing Systems", International Journal of Engineering and Technologies, Vol. 17, pp. 1-10, 2019
Online since:
May 2019

[1] Y. Wang et al., Bearing capacity of non-linear metallic spiders used in point supported glass facades, International Journal of Steel Structures. 12(2) (2012) 191-204.


[2] M.M. El-Shami, Y.E. Ibrahim, M. Shuaib, Structural behaviour of architectural glass plates, Alexandria Engineering Journal. 49 (2010) 339-348.


[3] M. Rénes et al., Laboratory experiments of point fixed glasses, Journal of Silicate Based and Composite Materials. 67(2) (2015) 62-67.

[4] Z. Wang et al., Bearing capacity of tempered glass panel in point supported glass facades against in-plane load, Advances of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. 16(4) (2016) 935-948.


[5] S. Sivanerupan et al., Analytical study of point fixed glass facade systems under monotonic in-plane loading, Advances in Structural Engineering. 19(4) (2016) 611-626.


[6] C. Bedon et al., Performance of structural glass facades under extreme loads – Design methods, existing research, current issues and trends, Construction and Building Materials. 163 (2018) 921-937.


[7] B. Van Lancker et al., Durability of adhesive glass-metal connections for structural applications, Engineering Structures. 126 (2016) 237-251.


[8] M. Bues et al., Load bearing and failure behaviour of adhesively bonded glass-metal joints in façade structures, The Journal of Adhesion. (2019) 1-22.

[9] M.A. Vyzantiadou, A.V. Avdelas, Point fixed glazing systems: technological and morphological aspects, Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 60 (2004) 1227-1240.


[10] A. Aksamija, Design methods for sustainable, high performance building facades, Advances in Building Energy Research. 10(2) (2016) 240-262.


[11] T. Hana et al., Determination of PVB interlayer´s shear modulus and its effect on normal stress distribution in laminated glass panels, IMST2017- IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 251 (2017).

[12] Y. Wang et al., Experimental and numerical studies on the static and the dynamic behaviors of embedded cable support (ECS) glass facade system, Engineering Structures. 178 (2019) 521-533.


[13] Μ. Patterson, Structural glass facades and enclosures. John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey, (2011).

[14] M. Moastuen, Parametric numerical study of a spider system, MSc. Dissertation, Facult. of Scien. and Tech., Norweg. Univ. Of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway, (2018).

[15] Sadev, Attache S3001EVO-Essais Mécaniques. Test Report [Online]. Available:

[16] ANSYS Inc., Ansys manual v18.2, Canonsburg (PE), USA, (2018).

[17] Luxion USA., KeyShot: 3D Rendering software, Tustin (CA), USA, (2018).

[18] EN 1990. Eurocode: Basis of structural design, CEN, (2002).

[19] EN 1991-1-1. Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. Part 1-1: Densities, self weight and imposed loads, CEN, (2002).

[20] EN 1991-1-4. Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. Part 1-4: Wind loads, CEN, (2005).

[21] prEN 13474-3: Glass in building - Determination of the strength of glass panes. Part 3: General method of calculation and determination of strength of glass by testing. CEN/TC129, (2009).

Show More Hide
Cited By:
This article has no citations.