Saffron (Crocus sativus) has cyanic color flowers with major colorant of anthocyanin. Attractive color and functional properties of anthocyanins make them a good substitute for synthetic pigments in the food industry. These natural soluble water colorants are rather unstable and influenced by final processing treatment. The drying process is critical to the stability of saffron petals anthocyanins. Four different dehydration methods were evaluated: traditional method (at room temperature and under the sun); dehydration with electrical oven at different temperatures; and dehydration with microwave at different powers. The results showed that the highest amount of anthocyanin was obtained when saffron petals treated by traditional methods (at room temperature and under the sun). According to the results, the stability of saffron petals anthocyanins gradually accessed with increase of the heating temperature and decrement of heating time until 100 °C. However, heated at 120 and 140 °C, the anthocyanins could break down, and their residual amounts declined within 20 min and 10 min, respectively. The results suggested that saffron petals anthocyanins tended to degrade at high temperatures (>100 °C). Between these methods, drying at room temperature and drying with microwave at 900 W obtained the highest and the lowest results respectively.
Evolving Trends in Engineering and Technology (Volume 2)
S. Heydari et al., "Effect of Drying Processes on Stability of Anthocyanin Extracts from Saffron Petal", Evolving Trends in Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, pp. 13-18, 2014